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Table 2 Measurements used for measuring primary and secondary outcomes

From: Effects of workplace bullying on Chinese children’s health, behaviours and school adjustment via parenting: study protocol for a longitudinal study

Outcome measures MeasurementScale Details of the measurement Completed by
  Parents Teachers Students
Primary outcomes
1. Child depression Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children [38] • To assess the level of depression among children/adolescents; • 20 items; 4-point Likert scale ranging from “Not at all” (0) to “A lot” (3), with higher scores indicating greater level of depressive symptoms.    X
2 Child self-esteem Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [40] • To measure students’ self-esteem; • 10 items; 4-point Likert scale ranging from “Strongly agree” (1) to “Strongly disagree” (4), with higher scores indicating higher self-esteem.    X
3. Child’s physical health Items created by the author • To measure students’ physical health • (i) a subjective indicator (“How would you rate your child’s physical health since his/her birth in comparison with other children?”), (ii) “In the past 6 months, how would you rate you child’s health in comparison with other children?” (iii) “Over the past 6 months, how often has your child had the following health problems? (a) hard to fall asleep, (b) abdominal pain, (c) stomachache, (d) fever, (e) cough, (f) running nose / flu. • 3 items; 4-point Likert scale ranging from “Never” (0) to “Often” (3) X   
4. Externalizing problem behavior Items created by the author • To measure children’s externalizing problem behaviour • 4-point Likert scale, ranging from “Not true” (0) to “Very often” (3) X X X
5. Academic adjustment Items created by the author • To measure the academic performance of students • (i) the student’s position in class and all classes within the students’ form during the last academic year as well as the current year (Primary One students will use the results in the first semester); • (ii) examination scores for three major subjects (Chinese, English, and Mathematics) will be obtained for last year and current year   X  
• The student’s perception of academic performance in (i) Chinese; (ii) English; (iii) Mathematics; and the overall academic results   X X
Secondary outcomes
6. Annual and lifetime prevalence of workplace bullying Items created by the author • Two single-item measures of workplace bullying will be completed by working parents. For the annual prevalence, an item such as “Have you ever been bullied at work over the last 12 months?” (Options: Never bullied/Yes, rarely/Yes, sometimes/Yes, Often) will be used. For lifetime prevalence of workplace bullying, an item such as “Have you ever been bullied at work in your life?” (Options: Never bullied/Yes, Rarely/Yes, Sometimes/Yes, Often) will be used. X   
7. Workplace bullying Chinese Workplace Bullying Scale (CWBS) [43] with adaptation • 21 items (e.g., I am assigned a heavy workload.”, “Someone withholds information deliberately to hinder my work performance”, “My efforts at work have been ignored”) • 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 “never” to 4 “Often” X   
8. Mental health General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12; Chinese version) [44] • 12 items, which will be used to measure the severity of the mental problems of parents over the past four weeks • 4-point scale (from 0 “less than usual” to 3 “much more than usual”) X