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Table 2 Frequency and proportion of schools with select types of food and beverage marketing

From: Food and beverage marketing in primary and secondary schools in Canada

   School Type  
Type of Food and Beverage Marketing All Schools, n = 156 n (% of schools) Primary, n = 108 n (% of schools) Secondary, n = 46 n (% of schools) p-Value
Food or beverage advertisements on property 40 (26) 14 (13) 26 (56) < 0.001
Food or beverage displays on property 10 (7) 2 (2) 8 (19) 0.001
Exclusive marketing arrangement 23 (16) 5 (5) 18 (45) < 0.001
Participate in reward or incentive program 27 (18) 26 (25) 1 (2) 0.002
Distribute free branded items 16 (11) 13 (12) 3 (7) 0.558
Fundraise by selling branded items 95 (64) 76 (72) 18 (43) 0.001
Involved in sponsored competitions or contests 3 (2) 2 (2) 1 (1) 1.000
Received money in return for publicity 23 (16) 17 (17) 6 (15) 0.782
Have sponsored programs 5 (3) 4 (4) 1 (2) 1.000
Taken part in market research activities 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 1 (3) 0.278
Promoted/participated in scholarship programs 4 (3) 1 (1) 3 (8) 0.064
Posted student made marketing materials 16 (11) 10 (10) 5 (13) 0.558
At least one type of marketing 129 (84) 92 (85) 36 (80) 0.429
  1. Differences in the type of food and beverage marketing were compared between primary and secondary schools using the chi-square test (p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance). When chi-square test assumptions were not met, the Fisher’s exact test was used