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Table 1 Inclusion Exclusion Criteria

From: Health and social impacts of open defecation on women: a systematic review

  Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Population exclusively include analysis relevant to women between 13 and 50 years exposed to open defecation All other population
Exposure clear evidence of association between open defecation and its impacts on women’s physical, mental and social health, should include description of open defecation or inappropriate disposal of human excreta study with no relevant analysis associating open defecation with health and social outcomes, no gender segregation
Place of study low-income or developing countries (based upon world bank country classification) developed countries
Setting rural and remote areas Urban areas
Time period no time limit applied
Language English or translated in English All other languages
Study Design empirical papers (primary or secondary data analysis), any primary study must consider ethical approval
studies describing original articles published in a peer-reviewed journal
editorials, commentaries, policy documents, case study, opinion pieces