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Table 3 Association between various characteristics and knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (multiple linear regression)

From: Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers – a cross-sectional study

  Antibiotics, general knowledgec Antibiotic resistance knowledgec
Coeff. 95% CI Coeff. 95% CI
Beliefs about medicines, BMQ score
 Benefit 0.116 0.037 0.195 0.132 0.074 0.190
 Harm −0.062 −0.141 0.018 −0.034 − 0.092 0.024
 Overuse 0.075 −0.005 0.156 0.020 −0.039 0.080
Attitude antibiotics, score
 Restrictive 0.165 0.006 0.324 0.190 0.073 0.307
 Less restrictive −0.161 −0.253 −0.069 − 0.190 −0.257 − 0.122
Agea
 30–44 years 0.493 −0.147 1.133 0.923 0.452 1.394
 45–59 years 0.719 0.092 1.345 1.092 0.631 1.553
  > =60 years 0.497 −0.258 1.252 1.256 0.701 1.812
Gendera
 Men − 0.867 − 1.253 −0.481 0.151 −0.134 0.435
Educationa
 Upper secondary school 0.188 −0.504 0.880 0.211 −0.298 0.720
 College/University ≤3y 0.219 −0.506 0.944 0.602 0.069 1.136
 College/University >3y 0.808 0.063 1.553 0.977 0.429 1.525
Health professionalb
 Yes 1.670 1.264 2.076 0.905 0.606 1.203
 Do not know 1.412 0.156 2.668 −0.259 −1.183 0.664
Antibiotics use last 12 monthsb
 Yes 0.333 −0.056 0.721 0.184 −0.101 0.470
 Do not remember −1.026 −2.458 0.406 −1.451 −2.504 −0.397
Healthy
 Score 0.081 −0.117 0.278 0.064 −0.082 0.209
Chronic diseaseb
 Yes 0.550 0.112 0.988 0.009 −0.313 0.331
 Will not tell −0.065 −1.307 1.177 −0.147 −1.061 0.767
Medicationb
 Some times − 0.317 − 1.040 0.406 0.040 −0.492 0.572
 Yes −0.746 −1.217 −0.274 − 0.310 −0.657 0.037
Smokingb
 Some times − 0.077 − 0.806 0.653 −0.329 − 0.866 0.208
 Yes 0.071 −0.517 0.659 −0.077 −0.510 0.355
Marital statusa
 Relationship − 0.564 −1.274 0.146 0.251 −0.271 0.773
 Single −0.176 −0.589 0.236 0.006 −0.297 0.310
 Other −0.682 −1.779 0.414 −0.232 −1.038 0.575
Worka
 Not working − 0.230 − 0.688 0.228 −0.469 − 0.805 −0.132
 Student −0.113 −0.859 0.633 −0.065 − 0.614 0.484
 Retired −0.831 −1.464 −0.198 − 0.450 −0.915 0.016
  1. CI Confidence Interval, Coeff. beta coefficient from univariate linear regression
  2. The numbers (coefficients and accompanying confidence Intervals (CI)) represent change in knowledge score for antibiotics in general and antibiotic resistance respectively
  3. Significant associations (p < 0.001) are marked in bold
  4. aReference category is “18–29 years” for age, “women” for gender, “primary/lower secondary school” for education, “married/cohabiting” for marital status and “active work” for work situation
  5. bReference category is “no”
  6. cTen participants had “do not know” on all 23 knowledge items while 59 had missing on at least one item. Number of missing per knowledge item varied from 0 to 11. All missing values were set to zero