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Table 1 Participants characteristics and proportion with high antibiotic knowledge scorea

From: Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers – a cross-sectional study

  n (%) High antibiotics knowledge scoreb
Antibiotics in general Antibiotic resistance
n (%) n (%)
Age
 18–29 years 178 (20.3) 91 (51.1) 104 (58.4)
 30–44 years 166 (18.9) 111 (66.9) 123 (74.1)
 45–59 years 215 (24.5) 135 (62.8) 163 (75.8)
  > =60 years 316 (36.0) 164 (51.9) 233 (73.7)
Gender
 Women 598 (68.2) 384 (64.2) 428 (71.5)
 Men 277 (31.6) 117 (42.2) 195 (70.4)
Health statement I have good health
 Strongly agree 240 (27.4) 140 (58.3) 175 (72.9)
 Agree 418 (47.7) 244 (58.4) 306 (73.2)
 Unsure 102 (11.6) 51 (50.0) 66 (64.7)
 Disagree 94 (10.7) 56 (59.6) 64 (68.1)
 Strongly disagree 18 (2.1) 9 (50.0) 9 (50.0)
Chronic disease
 Yes 381 (43.4) 256 (67.2) 275 (72.2)
 No 470 (53.6) 233 (49.6) 333 (70.9)
 Will not report 18 (2.1) 9 (50.0) 10 (55.6)
Smoking
 Yes 90 (10.3) 49 (54.4) 57 (63.3)
 No 732 (83.8) 424 (57.9) 535 (73.1)
 Sometimes 52 (5.9) 28 (53.8) 31 (59.6)
Regular medication use
 Yes 498 (57.0) 280 (56.2) 355 (71.3)
 No 314 (35.9) 186 (59.2) 228 (72.6)
 Sometimes 62 (7.1) 34 (54.8) 38 (61.3)
Antibiotics use last 12 months
 Yes 262 (29.9) 164 (62.6) 184 (70.2)
 No 602 (68.6) 332 (55.2) 432 (71.8)
 Do not remember 12 (1.4) 5 (41.7) 7 (58.3)
Education
 Primary/lower secondary school 69 (7.9) 29 (42.0) 38 (55.1)
 Upper secondary school 307 (35.0) 162 (52.8) 190 (61.9)
 College/University ≤3 years 242 (27.6) 133 (55.0) 185 (76.4)
 College/University > 3 years 247 (28.2) 171 (69.2) 205 (83.0)
Health professional background
 Yes 233 (26.6) 189 (81.1) 196 (84.1)
 No 609 (69.4) 291 (47.8) 407 (66.8)
 Do not know 17 (1.9)) 12 (70.6) 8 (47.1)
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting 546 (62.3) 331 (60.6) 410 (75.1)
 In a relationship 71 (8.1) 33 (46.5) 44 (61.9)
 Single 232 (26.5) 123 (53.0) 152 (65.5)
 Other 23 (2.6) 12 (52.2) 14 (60.9)
Work situation
 In active work 292 (33.3) 190 (65.1) 231 (79.1)
 Not working 226 (25.8) 140 (61.9) 148 (65.5)
 Student 90 (10.3) 47 (52.2) 54 (60.0)
 Retired 249 (28.4) 113 (45.4) 178 (71.5)
Beliefs about medicinesc
 Beneficial
  Agree 818 (93.3) 472 (57.7) 593 (72.5)
  Uncertain 32 (3.6) 12 (37.5) 13 (40.6)
  Disagree 27 (3.1) 17 (63.0) 18 (66.7)
 Harmful
  Agree 169 (19.3) 82 (48.5) 109 (64.5)
  Uncertain 112 (12.8) 65 (58.0) 71 (63.4)
  Disagree 596 (68.0) 354 (59.4) 444 (74.5)
 Overused
  Agree 465 (53.0) 274 (58.9) 336 (72.3)
  Uncertain 154 (17.6) 81 (52.6) 99 (64.3)
  Disagree 258 (29.4) 146 (56.6) 189 (73.3)
Attitude toward antibioticsc
 Restrictive attitude supported
  Agree 836 (95.3) 483 (57.8) 600 (71.8)
  Uncertain 35 (4.0) 16 (45.7) 20 (57.1)
  Disagree 5 (0.6) 1 (20.0) 3 (60.0)
 Non-restrictive attitude supported
  Agree 215 (24.5) 107 (49.8) 147 (68.4)
  Uncertain 185 (21.3) 99 (53.5) 119 (64.3)
  Disagree 476 (54.3) 294 (61.8) 357 (75.0)
  1. aProportion with mean score > 66% of maximum score (i.e. > 8.58 on general knowledge and > 6.66 on antibiotic resistance knowledge)
  2. bTen participants had “do not know” on all 23 knowledge items while 59 had missing on at least one item. Number of missing per knowledge item varied from 0 to 11. All missing values were set to zero
  3. cTotal score transposed to a 1–5 scale (mean of mean) and categorized as agree (4–5), uncertain (3) and disagree (1–2)