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Table 3 Adjusted mean and standard deviation for stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect between the intervention and comparison participants who were young, low-income women with overweight or obesity

From: Mothers In Motion intervention effect on psychosocial health in young, low-income women with overweight or obesity

  InterventionM (SD) ComparisonM (SD) Effect Size 95% Confidence Interval
At baseline
 Stress 2.55 (0.62) 2.58 (0.38) NA NA
 Depressive symptoms 19.85 (10.47) 19.86 (10.00) NA NA
 Positive affect 3.32 (0.76) 3.22 (0.72) NA NA
 Negative affect 3.71 (0.72) 3.69 (0.77) NA NA
At the end of the 16-week intervention (T2)
 Stress** 2.56 (0.358) 2.44 (0.36)# 0.34 0.11, 0.56
 Depressive symptoms* 17.45 (8.38) 19.68 (8.35)# −0.27 −0.49, − 0.04
 Positive affect* 3.47 (0.64) 3.27 (0.64) 0.31 0.09, 0.53
 Negative affect 3.92 (0.57) 3.80 (0.45) 0.23 0.00, 0.45
At three-month follow-up (T3)
 Stress 2.55 (0.36) 2.51 (0.36)# 0.11 −0.12, 0.34
 Depressive symptoms 17.56 (8.32) 18.04 (8.30)# −0.06 −0.29, 0.17
 Positive affect 3.43 (0.63) 3.30 (0.63) 0.21 −0.03, 0.44
 Negative affect 3.96 (0.71) 3.88 (0.57) 0.12 −0.11, 0.35
  1. Baseline: N = 569 (387 intervention, 182 comparison). T2: n = 338 (212 intervention, 126 comparison). T3: n = 311 (196 intervention, 115 comparison). Stress (score ranged 1–4): the higher the score, the less stress. Depressive symptoms (score ranged 0–60): the lower the score, the fewer depressive symptoms. Positive affect (score ranged 1–4): the higher the score, the more positive affect. Negative affect (score ranged 1–4): the higher the score, the less negative affect. *p < 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01 for comparisons between the intervention and comparison groups within a timeframe. #p < 0.05 for comparisons between T2 and T3 within the comparison group