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Table 2 Risk factors for under-five mortality using multiple logistic regression models

From: Predictive model and determinants of under-five child mortality: evidence from the 2014 Ghana demographic and health survey

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Type of birth
 Single birth 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Multiple birth 0.22 (0.16, 0.31)*** 0.48 (0.31, 0.76)** 0.47 (0.30, 0.75)**
Sex of child
 Male 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Female 1.17 (0.92, 1.49) 1.31 (1.00, 1.72)* 1.31 (1.01, 1.72)*
Respondent’s current age 1.03 (0.99, 1.06) 1.03 (0.99, 1.06)
Highest education level
 No education   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Primary   1.62 (1.09, 2.44)* 1.45 (0.96, 2.21)
 Secondary   1.27 (0.87, 1.84) 1.22 (0.82, 1.81)
 Higher   0.85 (0.41, 1.91) 0.95 (0.45, 2.15)
Religion
 Islam   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Christian   1.27 (0.91, 1.77) 1.06 (0.73, 1.54)
 Traditionalist/spiritualist   1.13 (0.55, 2.62) 1.13 (0.54, 2.63)
 No religion   0.99 (0.53, 2.00) 0.89 (0.47, 1.83)
Number of children < 5 years 6.72 (5.48, 8.30)*** 7.2 (5.82, 8.96)***
Wealth index
 Rich   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Poor   0.95 (0.65, 1.38) 1.19 (0.72, 1.96)
 Average   1.06 (0.70, 1.62) 1.15 (0.72, 1.83)
Total children ever born 0.81 (0.73, 0.90)*** 0.81 (0.73, 0.9)***
Births in last five years 0.17 (0.13, 0.21)*** 0.16 (0.12, 0.21)***
Contraceptive use/ intention
 Using modern method   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Using traditional method   2.28 (0.68, 14.20) 2.2 (0.65, 13.78)
 Non-user - intends to use later   0.73 (0.49, 1.08) 0.76 (0.51, 1.12)
 Does not intend to use   0.55 (0.37, 0.81)** 0.56 (0.37, 0.82)**
Covered by health insurance
 No   1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 Yes   0.97 (0.72, 1.30) 0.99 (0.72, 1.33)
Place of residence
 Urban    1.00 (Reference)
 Rural    1.03 (0.71, 1.49)
Region
 Western    1.00 (Reference)
 Central    0.43 (0.21, 0.84)*
 Greater Accra    0.9 (0.38, 2.16)
 Volta    0.39 (0.18, 0.83)*
 Eastern    0.33 (0.16, 0.64)**
 Ashanti    0.46 (0.23, 0.89)*
 Brong Ahafo    0.48 (0.23, 0.96)*
 Northern    0.26 (0.13, 0.50)***
 Upper east    0.48 (0.22, 1.04)
 Upper west    0.38 (0.18, 0.76)**
  1. aOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. *: p-value < 0.05. **: p-value < 0.01. ***: p-value < 0.001