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Table 3 Characteristics of workplace hazards exist in the South and Southeast Asian countries

From: Health vulnerabilities of readymade garment (RMG) workers: a systematic review

Country & References Ergonomic hazards (related to musculoskeletal problems) Physical hazards Psychological hazards Mechanical hazards Chemical hazards
Khan et al., 2015 [24];
Steinisch et al., 2014 [31];
Ahmed & Raihan, 2014 [4];
Steinisch et al., 2013 [10];
Fitch et al., 2015 & 2017 [25, 30]
- Less/no break during the work
-Long working hours
-Lack of safety tools
-Inadequate light
-Noise pollution
-Inadequate ventilation
-Congested & overcrowding workplace
-Unavailability of separate toilets
-Unhealthy workplace environment
-Lack of job promotion prospects
-Job insecurity
-Trauma, depression, & anxiety
-Unwanted sexual contact/harassment
-Long working hours,
-Time pressure & worries about making mistakes
-Exposure to abusive language
-Lack of recognition
-Inadequate payment/low income
-Lack of security at workplace
-Lack of psychological counseling
-Collapse of factory building
(i.e. collapse of Rana Plaza in 2013), &
-Fire in the factory building
(i.e. fire in the Tazreen Fashion in 2012)
-Chemical dying
-Chemical compound
Makurat et al., 2016 [11]
-Low salaries
(cause of poor nutritional status of the workers & mental stress of the workers)
Chen et al., 2017 [6]
-Dusty work materials
(These cause occupational allergic contact dermatitis)
Padmini & Venmathi, 2012 [22];
Shanbhag & Bobby, 2012 [8];
Parimalam et al., 2007 [27];
Saha et al., 2010 [9]
-Inadequate seating & standing arrangements for the workers
-Bent positioning to work
-Obsolete machinery
-Improper lifting or movement of heavy loads
-Lack of safety tools
(these cause musculoskeletal problems)
-Lighting problem
Electric shock
-Hot conditions inside the factory
-Ventilation problems
-Poorly illuminated rooms
-Monotonous type of work
-Feeling of risks at workplace
-Long working hours
-Lack of recognition
-Social dysfunction
-Fire hazard -Dusts
-Fog or smog
Liquids or gases
Sri Lanka
De Silva et al., 2013 [32]; Lombardo et al., 2012 [17]
-Increased age of the workers
-Job tenure
-Work nature
(i.e. long standing position while working)
(These cause musculoskeletal problems)
-Emotional abuse  
Chumchai et al., 2015 [7]
-Inadequate ventilation
-Inappropriate workplace & poor workspaces
-Fabric dust
(The cause of respiratory problems)
  1. (−) indicates the absence of the category