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Table 3 Characteristics of workplace hazards exist in the South and Southeast Asian countries

From: Health vulnerabilities of readymade garment (RMG) workers: a systematic review

Country & References Ergonomic hazards (related to musculoskeletal problems) Physical hazards Psychological hazards Mechanical hazards Chemical hazards
Bangladesh Khan et al., 2015 [24]; Steinisch et al., 2014 [31]; Ahmed & Raihan, 2014 [4]; Steinisch et al., 2013 [10]; Fitch et al., 2015 & 2017 [25, 30] - Less/no break during the work -Long working hours -Lack of safety tools -Inadequate light -Noise pollution -Inadequate ventilation -Congested & overcrowding workplace -Unavailability of separate toilets -Unhealthy workplace environment -Lack of job promotion prospects -Job insecurity -Trauma, depression, & anxiety -Unwanted sexual contact/harassment -Long working hours, -Time pressure & worries about making mistakes -Exposure to abusive language -Lack of recognition -Inadequate payment/low income -Lack of security at workplace -Lack of psychological counseling -Collapse of factory building (i.e. collapse of Rana Plaza in 2013), & -Fire in the factory building (i.e. fire in the Tazreen Fashion in 2012) -Dust -Chemical dying -Chemical compound
Cambodia Makurat et al., 2016 [11] -Low salaries (cause of poor nutritional status of the workers & mental stress of the workers) -Anemia
China Chen et al., 2017 [6] -Dusty work materials -Dyes (These cause occupational allergic contact dermatitis)
India Padmini & Venmathi, 2012 [22]; Shanbhag & Bobby, 2012 [8]; Parimalam et al., 2007 [27]; Saha et al., 2010 [9] -Inadequate seating & standing arrangements for the workers -Bent positioning to work -Obsolete machinery -Improper lifting or movement of heavy loads -Lack of safety tools (these cause musculoskeletal problems) -Noise -Lighting problem Electric shock -Hot conditions inside the factory -Ventilation problems -Poorly illuminated rooms -Monotonous type of work -Feeling of risks at workplace -Long working hours -Lack of recognition -Depression -Anxiety -Social dysfunction -Fire hazard -Dusts -Fumes -Mist -Smoke -Fog or smog -Smoke Liquids or gases -Solids -Vapours
Sri Lanka De Silva et al., 2013 [32]; Lombardo et al., 2012 [17] -Increased age of the workers -Job tenure -Work nature (i.e. long standing position while working) (These cause musculoskeletal problems) -Emotional abuse  
Thailand Chumchai et al., 2015 [7] -Inadequate ventilation -Inappropriate workplace & poor workspaces -Fabric dust (The cause of respiratory problems)
  1. (−) indicates the absence of the category