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Table 4 Associations of total and device-specific screen viewing (hours per day) with sleep duration (hours per day) stratified by age group

From: Screen viewing behavior and sleep duration among children aged 2 and below

  β (95%CI) P value c β (95% CI) P for trend d
Up to 6 months
 SV 0 h (n = 230) < 1 h (n = 43) 1–2 h (n = 23) ≥ 2 h (n = 25)   Per Hour  
  Model 1a Ref −1.75 (− 2.99,-0.51) −2.26 (− 3.89,-0.63) −3.26 (− 4.83,-1.69) < 0.01 − 0.82 (− 1.19,-0.44) < 0.01
  Model 2b Ref − 1.59 (− 2.84,-0.34) −2.07 (− 3.74,-0.40) −2.88 (− 4.50,-1.26) < 0.01 − 0.73 (− 1.12,-0.34) < 0.01
 TV 0 h (n = 245) < 1 h (n = 41) 1–2 h (n = 16) ≥ 2 h (n = 19)   Per Hour  
  Model 1 Ref −2.01 (−3.28,-0.74) − 2.05 (− 3.99,-0.11) −2.74 (− 4.54,-0.95) < 0.01 − 1.03 (− 1.59,-0.46) < 0.01
  Model 2 Ref −1.76 (− 3.05,-0.48) −2.02 (− 4.01,-0.04) −2.47 (− 4.29,-0.65) < 0.01 −0.85 (− 1.43,-0.27) < 0.01
 Mobile devices 0 h (n = 279) < 1 h (n = 29) 1–2 h (n = 7) ≥ 2 h (n = 6)   Per Hour  
  Model 1 Ref −1.63 (−3.11,-0.15) −3.80 (− 6.71,-0.89) − 2.79 (− 5.93,0.35) < 0.01 −0.81 (− 1.39,-0.23) 0.01
  Model 2 Ref −1.37 (−2.88,0.14) −3.21 (− 6.15,-0.27) − 2.62 (− 5.85,0.61) 0.03 − 0.73 (− 1.33,-0.14) 0.02
7–24 months
 SV 0 h (n = 105) < 1 h (n = 104) 1–2 h (n = 93) ≥ 2 h (n = 91)   Per Hour  
  Model 1 Ref −0.35 (− 0.93,0.23) −0.88 (− 1.48,-0.28) − 1.12 (− 1.72,-0.52) < 0.01 −0.17 (− 0.28,-0.06) < 0.01
  Model 2 Ref −0.29 (− 0.87,0.29) −0.84 (− 1.45,-0.23) −0.91 (− 1.54,-0.28) 0.01 − 0.13 (− 0.24,-0.01) 0.03
 TV 0 h (n = 153) < 1 h (n = 117) 1–2 h (n = 61) ≥ 2 h (n = 62)   Per Hour  
  Model 1 Ref −0.16 (− 0.68,0.36) −0.77 (− 1.41,-0.13) −0.86 (− 1.50,-0.23) 0.01 − 0.17 (− 0.34,0.01) 0.06
  Model 2 Ref − 0.08 (− 0.60,0.43) −0.68 (− 1.33,-0.02) −0.61 (− 1.26,0.05) 0.1 −0.09 (− 0.27,-0.08) 0.29
 Mobile devices 0 h (n = 220) < 1 h (n = 112) 1–2 h (n = 40) ≥ 2 h (n = 21)   Per Hour  
  Model 1 Ref −0.62 (− 1.12,-0.13) − 0.68 (− 1.41,-0.05) −0.66 (− 1.62,0.31) 0.04 −0.23 (− 0.45,-0.02) 0.04
  Model 2 Ref −0.62 (− 1.11,-0.13) −0.54 (− 1.28,0.19) −0.45 (− 1.43,0.53) 0.07 − 0.17 (− 0.40,-0.05) 0.12
  1. aUnadjusted model
  2. bMultivariable model adjusted for children’s age race, sex, maternal education, father’s education, mother’s education, caregiver, marital status, housing type
  3. cOverall effect of categorical screen viewing variables
  4. dTrend of association using screen viewing variables