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Table 3 Associations of total and device-specific screen viewing (hours per day) with sleep duration (hours per day) among all participants

From: Screen viewing behavior and sleep duration among children aged 2 and below

All participants
(n = 714)
β (95%CI) P valuec β (95%CI) P for trendd
SV 0 h (n = 335) < 1 h (n = 147) 1–2 h (n = 116) ≥ 2 h (n = 116)   Per Hour  
 Model 1a Ref −2.03 (− 2.65,-1.41) − 2.73 (− 3.41,-2.06) −3.11 (− 3.78,-2.43) < 0.01 − 0.54 (− 0.68,-0.39) < 0.01
 Model 2b Ref − 1.01 (− 1.63,-0.40) − 1.42 (− 2.10,-0.73) −1.73 (− 2.43,-1.02) < 0.01 − 0.26 (− 0.40,-0.12) < 0.01
TV 0 h (n = 398) < 1 h (n = 158) 1–2 h (n = 77) ≥ 2 h (n = 81)   Per Hour  
 Model 1a Ref −1.84 (− 2.44,-1.23) −2.41 (− 3.21,-1.61) −2.58 (− 3.37,-1.80) < 0.01 − 0.69 (− 0.92,-0.46) < 0.01
 Model 2b Ref −0.78 (− 1.37,-0.20) −1.27 (− 2.05,-0.48) −1.32 (− 2.08,-0.56) < 0.01 − 0.28 (− 0.50,-0.06) 0.01
Mobile devices 0 h (n = 499) < 1 h (n = 141) 1–2 h (n = 47) ≥ 2 h (n = 27)   Per Hour  
 Model 1a Ref −1.94 (− 2.57,-1.32) −2.43 (− 3.43,-1.44) −2.19 (− 3.48,-0.90) < 0.01 −0.69 (− 0.97,-0.41) < 0.01
 Model 2b Ref −0.85(− 1.45,-0.25) −0.95 (− 1.90,-0.01) −1.10 (− 2.32,0.11) 0.01 −0.35 (− 0.61,-0.09) 0.01
  1. aUnadjusted model
  2. bMultivariable model adjusted for children’s age race, sex, mother’s education, father’s education, marital status, caregiver, housing type
  3. cOverall effect of categorical screen viewing variables; d Trend of association using continuous screen viewing variables