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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted associations of socioeconomic and religious factors with good self-rated health in China and Korea (base outcome is excellent self-rated health): Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses

From: Associations of socioeconomic and religious factors with health: a population-based, comparison study between China and Korea using the 2010 East Asian social survey

Variable Model 1 Model 2
China Korea China Korea
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Education
 Elementary school/lower (ref.) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Junior high school 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 1.00 (0.53–1.90) 1.05 (0.84–1.32) 0.77 (0.38–1.56)
 Senior high school 0.70** (0.55–0.90) 0.68 (0.39–1.17) 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 0.73 (0.38–1.40)
 College/higher 0.67** (0.51–0.88) 0.48** (0.28–0.83) 1.22 (0.88–1.68) 0.62 (0.31–1.21)
Employment
 Not employeda (ref.) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Employed 0.51*** (0.43–0.60) 0.81 (0.60–1.08) 0.67*** (0.55–0.82) 0.75 (0.54–1.03)
Household income
 Lowest quartile (ref.) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 2nd lowest quartile 0.84 (0.65–1.09) 0.72 (0.46–1.10) 0.87 (0.66–1.14) 0.76 (0.48–1.21)
 2nd highest quartile 0.77* (0.59–1.00) 0.81 (0.52–1.27) 0.73* (0.55–0.97) 0.86 (0.54–1.37)
 Highest quartile 1.01 (0.76–1.32) 0.58* (0.36–0.93) 0.95 (0.71–1.28) 0.59* (0.35–0.98)
 Missing 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 0.72 (0.43–1.22) 1.28 (0.94–1.75) 0.77 (0.44–1.33)
Self-assessed social class
 Lowest (ref.) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Low 0.69** (0.54–0.86) 0.84 (0.52–1.37) 0.70** (0.55–0.90) 0.97 (0.57–1.63)
 High 0.52*** (0.41–0.66) 0.61* (0.38–0.99) 0.55*** (0.43–0.70) 0.75 (0.45–1.26)
 Highest 0.42*** (0.27–0.65) 0.57 (0.31–1.04) 0.42*** (0.27–0.67) 0.66 (0.35–1.25)
Religion
 Christian (ref.) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Buddhist 1.13 (0.59–2.17) 1.71** (1.18–2.47) 1.34 (0.67–2.69) 1.72** (1.16–2.55)
 Othersb 0.92 (0.54-1.59) 1.57** (1.15–2.15) 1.07 (0.60–1.90) 1.66** (1.19–2.32)
N 3629 1351 3629 1351
Likelihood χ2 (degree of freedom) 560.55 (26)*** 280.63 (26)*** 1585.10 (70)*** 614.46 (68)***
−2 Log likelihood 6560.850 2485.06 5480.30 2151.24
  1. Note: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Model 2: adjusted for demographic, health-related risks/health care system, and social capital characteristics
  3. a‘Not employed’ includes the unemployed, the retired, the permanently disabled out of labour force, students and housewives
  4. b‘Others’ includes Islam, Hinduism, atheism, agnosticism, and other religions