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Table 2 Adjusted associationa of bullying and sexual abuse with smoking, alcohol intake, binge eating and antidepressant use among individuals ≥20 years in South Australia, 2015 (unweighted N = 2873)

From: Bullying and sexual abuse and their association with harmful behaviours, antidepressant use and health-related quality of life in adulthood: a population-based study in South Australia

  % Smoking dependenceb (7.8%) Excessive alcohol intakec (14.3%) Binge eatingd (8.1%) Antidepressant use (17.2%)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
BULLYING
 Age when started   p = 0.533e p = 0.161e p = 0.015e p < 0.001e
  Never 54.4 Ref Ref Ref Ref
   < 10 years 9.2 1.51 (0.82;2.77) 1.62 (1.04;2.51) 1.77 (1.00;3.21) 1.67 (1.15;2.41)
  10–19 years 20.7 0.97 (0.64;1.47) 1.23 (0.90;1.69) 1.66 (1.13;2.45) 1.95 (1.47;2.60)
  20+ years 15.7 1.17 (0.74;1.82) 1.09 (0.72;1.66) 1.87 (1.20;2.93) 2.03 (1.50;2.74)
 Duration (months)   p = 0.070f p = 0.005f p = 0.001f p < 0.001f
  Never 54.4 Ref Ref Ref Ref
   < 1 month 15.2 0.87 (0.48;1.60) 1.05 (0.68;1.64) 1.45 (0.88;3.37) 1.45 (1.05;2.00)
  1–24 months 23.2 1.00 (0.65;1.54) 1.35 (0.99;1.85) 2.02 (1.36;2.99) 2.07 (1.59;2.69)
   > 24 months 7.2 2.18 (1.22;3.91) 1.60 (1.04;2.46) 1.56 (0.88;2.77) 2.50 (1.68;3.70)
SEXUAL ABUSE
 Age when started   p = 0.009e p = 0.298e p = 0.004e p < 0.001e
  Never 89.6 Ref Ref Ref Ref
   < 10 years 3.4 2.51 (1.26;4.99) 1.07 (0.54;2.14) 1.85 (1.12;3.06) 3.58 (2.22;5.78)
  10–19 years 4.7 1.42 (0.82;2.47) 0.73 (0.37;1.47) 1.20 (0.67;2.14) 2.02 (1.31;3.11)
  20+ years 2.4 2.62 (1.23;5.59) 0.40 (0.14;1.15) 3.36 (1.63;6.93) 2.57 (1.31;5.05)
 Duration (months)   p = 0.001f p = 0.279f p = 0.009f p < 0.001f
  Never 89.6 Ref Ref Ref Ref
   < 1 month 5.9 1.40 (0.84;2.33) 0.82 (0.43;1.58) 2.01 (1.16;3.48) 2.24 (1.56;3.23)
  1–24 months 2.9 2.74 (1.46;5.15) 0.55 (0.20;1.51) 1.57 (0.89;2.76) 2.53 (1.46;4.37)
   > 24 months 1.6 3.35 (1.32;8.51) 0.91 (0.24;3.44) 1.52 (0.65;3.53) 4.53 (2.36;8.67)
  1. OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval;
  2. aResults adjusted for sex, age, marital status, area of residence, education level, working status, socioeconomic position (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantaged), and type of dwelling. Bullying and sexual abuse were also mutually adjusted
  3. bHeaviness of Smoking Index ≥3 points
  4. c≥5 standard drinks of alcohol/day
  5. dOvereating or eating an unusual large amount of food in one go (“out of control”) + distress associated with this behaviour
  6. eLikelihood-ratio test for heterogeneity
  7. fLikelihood-ratio test for trend