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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression model to examine factors associated with adequate antenatal visits in Liberia, 2007–2016

From: Maternal health care service utilization in post-war Liberia: analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys

Variable Crude OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
Year
 2007 1.00 1.00
 2013 1.30 (1.07–1.59) 0.010* 0.86 (0.53–1.39) 0.537
 2016 1.51 (1.16–1.95) 0.002*
Age at first birth 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.415 Ns
Age
 15–19 1.00   Ns  
 20–24 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 0.532 Ns  
 25–29 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 0.590 Ns  
 30–34 0.95 (0.79–1.17) 0.676 Ns  
 35–39 1.16 (0.94–1.42) 0.173 Ns  
 40–44 0.85 (0.67–1.08) 0.196 Ns  
 45–49 0.78 (0.55–1.12) 0.179 Ns  
Region
 Morovia 1.00   1.00  
 North Western 0.73 (0.56–0.96) 0.023 0.95 (0.69–1.31) 0.765
 South Central 0.54 (0.41–0.73) < 0.001* 1.34 (0.97–1.86) 0.080
 South Eastern A 0.41 (0.31–0.54) < 0.001* 0.61 (0.43–0.86) 0.005*
 South Eastern B 0.51 (0.39–0.66) < 0.001* 1.06 (0.77–1.47) 0.717
 North Central 0.41 (0.28–0.58) < 0.001* 1.18 (0.76–1.82) 0.456
Place of residence
 Urban 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 0.41 (0.35–0.49) < 0.001* 0.51 (0.36–0.72) < 0.001*
Level of education
 No education 1.00   1.00  
 Primary 1.33 (1.17–1.50) < 0.001* 1.28 (1.11–1.48) 0.001*
 Secondary 2.49 (2.10–2.95) < 0.001* 1.63 (1.27–2.09) < 0.001*
 Higher 7.01 (3.58–13.71) < 0.001* 4.33 (1.50–12.55) 0.007*
Religion
 Christian 1.00   1.00  
 Muslim 1.76 (1.34–2.32) < 0.001* 1.90 (1.38–2.61) < 0.001*
 Traditional 0.68 (0.32–1.42) 0.301 1.21 (0.57–2.59) 0.617
 Nil 0.57 (0.39–0.81) 0.002* 0.78 (0.52–1.16) 0.217
Sex of household head
 Male 1.00   1.00  
 Female 1.24 (1.08–1.41) 0.002* 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 0.091
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a week 2.38 (1.72–3.30) < 0.001* 1.04 (0.74–1.48) 0.812
 At least once a week 2.30 (1.67–3.18) < 0.001* 0.99 (0.69–1.45) 0.990
 Almost every day 7.10 (1.50–33.65) < 0.001* 1.37 (0.27–6.94) 0.700
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a week 2.03 (1.67–2.46) < 0.001* 1.33 (1.09–1.62) 0.005*
 At least once a week 1.70 (1.44–2.02) < 0.001* 1.09 (0.90–1.31) 0.366
 Almost every day 2.92 (2.23–3.83) < 0.001* 1.64 (1.18–2.27) 0.003*
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a week 2.26 (1.79–2.85) < 0.001* 1.32 (1.04–1.67) 0.024
 At least once a week 1.95 (1.55–2.46) < 0.001* 1.04 (0.81–1.32) 0.769
 Almost every day 3.07 (1.99–4.74) < 0.001* 1.10 (0.68–1.79) 0.696
Wealth index
 Poorest 1.00   1.00  
 Poorer 1.38 (1.16–1.64) < 0.001* 1.11 (0.81–1.53) 0.514
 Middle 2.25 (1.86–2.72) < 0.001* 1.54 (1.11–1.85) 0.010*
 Richer 3.11 (2.51–3.85) < 0.001* 2.06 (1.36–3.12) 0.001*
 Richest 5.18 (3.85–6.95) < 0.001* 3.04 (1.75–5.29) < 0.001*
Children ever born
 1–4 1.00   1.00  
  > 4 0.77 (0.69–0.87) < 0.001* 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 0.758
Year*Residence
 2007*Urban 1.00   1.00  
 2013*Rural 2.03 (1.4–2.95) < 0.001* 1.83 (1.21–2.75) 0.004*
 2016*Rural 2.39 (1.47–3.87) < 0.001*   
Year*wealth index
 2007*Urban 1.00    
 2013*Poorer 1.11 (0.76–1.63) 0.579 1.13 (0.76–1.68) 0.560
 2013*Middle 0.99 (0.65–1.52) 0.969 1.19 (0.77–1.85) 0.421
 2013*Richer 0.80 (0.50–1.29) 0.368 1.15 (0.67–1.98) 0.613
 2013*Richest 0.47 (0.23–0.94) 0.033* 0.79 (0.36–1.72) 0.554
 2016*Poorer 1.51 (0.85–2.67) 0.162 1.47 (0.85–2.55) 0.164
 2016*Middle 1.16 (0.63–2.16) 0.628 0.76 (0.41–1.42) 0.401
 2016*Richer 0.48 (0.26–0.89) 0.019* 0.36 (0.19–0.71) 0.003*
 2016*Richest 0.40 (0.18–0.85) 0.018* 0.26 (0.12–0.56) 0.000*
  1. *significant at p < 0.05
  2. Mckelvey and Zavoina’s R2 = 0.987