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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression model to examine factors associated with facility-based delivery in Liberia, 2007–2016

From: Maternal health care service utilization in post-war Liberia: analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys

Variable Crude OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
Year
 2007 1.00   1.00  
 2013 1.86 (1.51–2.29) < 0.001* 2.21 (1.30–3.75) 0.003*
 2016 4.14 (3.14–5.46) < 0.001* 3.01 (3.83–11.67) 0.001
 Age at first birth 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.096 Ns  
Age
 15–19 1.00   1.00  
 20–24 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 0.053 0.81 (0.67–0.99) 0.045*
 25–29 0.77 (0.65–0.91) 0.002* 0.79 (0.63–0.98) 0.034*
 30–34 0.72 (0.61–0.84) < 0.001* 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 0.175
 35–39 0.73 (0.61–0.86) < 0.001* 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 0.567
 40–44 0.58 (0.48–0.71) < 0.001* 0.91 (0.66–1.26) 0.577
 45–49 0.50 (0.37–0.67) < 0.001* 1.08 (0.71–1.64) 0.725
Region
 Morovia 1.00   1.00  
 North Western 0.68 (0.53–0.87) 0.002* 0.76 (0.56–1.05) 0.094
 South Central 0.48 (0.37–0.62) < 0.001* 1.20 (0.87–1.66) 0.255
 South Eastern A 0.76 (0.55–1.04) 0.084 1.21 (0.84–1.73) 0.303
 South Eastern B 0.50 (0.39–0.65) < 0.001* 0.94 (0.68–1.30) 0.720
 North Central 0.33 (0.23–0.48) < 0.001* 1.65 (1.04–2.61) 0.034*
Place of residence
 Urban 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 0.32 (0.27–0.39) < 0.001* 0.45 (0.31–0.65) < 0.001*
Level of education
 No education 1.00   1.00  
 Primary 1.41 (1.26–1.59) < 0.001* 1.11 (0.96–1.27) 0.150
 Secondary 3.35 (2.88–3.89) < 0.001* 1.45 (1.20–1.76) < 0.001*
 Higher 11.32 (6.85–18.69) < 0.001* 3.72 (1.82–7.61) < 0.001*
Religion
 Christian 1.00   1.00  
 Muslim 0.97 (0.78–1.21) 0.774 1.06 (0.78–1.44) 0.697
 Traditional 0.85 (0.45–1.60) 0.614 1.54 (0.63–3.82) 0.345
 Nil 0.41 (0.28–0.59) < 0.001* 0.55 (0.35–0.85) 0.007*
Sex of household head
 Male 1.00   1.00  
 Female 1.40 (1.25–1.56) < 0.001* 1.20 (1.07–1.36) 0.003*
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a  week 2.57 (2.00–3.31) < 0.001* 1.01 (0.77–1.31) 0.951
 At least once a week 2.93 (2.28–3.78) < 0.001* 1.17 (0.85–1.60) 0.335
 Almost every day 4.76 (2.64–8.60) < 0.001* 0.99 (0.49–1.99) 0.979
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a week 2.18 (1.85–2.57) < 0.001* 1.24 (1.04–1.48) 0.016*
 At least once a week 2.09 (1.78–2.46) < 0.001* 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 0.165
 Almost every day 2. (2.31–3.67) < 0.001* 1.61 (1.24–2.10) < 0.001*
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all 1.00   1.00  
 Less than once a week 2.02 (1.67–2.43) < 0.001* 0.96 (0.79–1.17) 0.684
 At least once a week 2.22 (1.77–2.79) < 0.001* 1.06 (0.83–1.35) 0.626
 Almost every day 3.16 (2.29–4.35) < 0.001* 1.31 (0.92–1.87) 0.133
Wealth index
 Poorest 1.00   1.00  
 Poorer 1.40 (1.18–1.66) < 0.001* 1.12 (0.81–1.53) 0.501
 Middle 1.91 (1.58–2.32) < 0.001* 1.52 (1.02–2.26) 0.039*
 Richer 3.16 (2.54–3.91) < 0.001* 2.48 (1.60–3.85) < 0.001*
 Richest 5.35 (4.09–7.00) < 0.001* 2.72 (1.66–4.46) < 0.001*
Children ever born
 1–4 1.00   1.00  
  > 4 0.65 (0.58–0.71) < 0.001* 0.85 (0.71–1.01) 0.080
Antenatal care visits
  < 4 1.00   1.00  
 4 and above 3.62 (3.16–4.14) < 0.001* 2.90 (2.52–3.36) < 0.001*
Year*Residence
 2007*Urban 1.00   1.00  
 2013*Rural 2.17 (1.44–3.25) < 0.001* 1.64 (1.01–2.67) 0.047*
 2016*Rural 2.95 (1.74–4.99) < 0.001*   
Year*wealth index
 2007*Poorest 1.00   1.00  
 2013*Poorer 0.98 (0.68–1.41) 0.914 1.09 (0.75–1.59) 0.643
 2013*Middle 0.77 (0.49–1.23) 0.276 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 0.784
 2013*Richer 0.54 (0.32–0.90) 0.018* 0.82 (0.47–1.43) 0.481
 2013*Richest 0.58 (0.29–1.16) 0.121 1.18 (0.56–2.49) 0.658
 2016*Poorer 1.48 (0.85–2.55) 0.164   
 2016*Middle 0.77 (0.41–1.43) 0.401   
 2016*Richer 0.37 (0.19–0.71) 0.003*   
 2016*Richest 0.27 (0.13–0.56) < 0.001*   
  1. *significant at p < 0.05
  2. Mckelvey and Zavoina’s R2 = 0.992