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Table 3 HIV seroprevalence by demographic and behavioral characteristics among men who have sex with men consented for HIV testing in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso

From: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men: results of the first integrated biological and behavioral survey in Burkina Faso, West Africa

Variables Ouagadougou Bobo-Dioulasso
RDS unadjusted % HIV positive RDS-adjusted % HIV Positive
(95% CI)
P value RDS unadjusted % HIV positive RDS-adjusted % HIV positive
(95% CI)
P value
Current age (years)
 <=24 2.2 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 0.010 1.6 0.9 (0.4–2.5) < 0.001
 > = 25 8.9 5.4 (2.2–12.5) 10.8 6.6 (3.4–12.3)
 Total 3.3 1.9 (1.1–3.5) 4.0 2.3 (1.3–4.0)
Marital status (with a woman)
 Single 2.6 1.5 (0.7–3.0) 0.010 3.2 1.9 (1.0–3.4) < 0.001
 Othera 15.8 11.0 (3.4–30.2)   25.0 16.1 (4.9–41.7)
Country of birth
 Burkina Faso 3.3 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 0.924 3.6 2.1 (1.1–3.9) 0.508
 Other countries 3.5 2.1 (0.5–8.0) 5.6 3.3 (1.0–9.9)
Childhood environment
 Urban 3.4 2.0 (1.1–3.7) 0.942 3.6 2.1 (1.2–3.8) 0.152
 Rural 3.7 2.2 (0.3–14.2) 10.0 6.0 (1.5–21.8)
Highest educational level
 None or primary 4.0 2.3 (0.3–15.2) 0.348 12.8 7.8 (3.2–17.9) 0.010
 Secondary 2.5 1.4 (0.6–3.2) 2.7 1.6 (0.7–3.5)
 University 6.1 3.6 (1.3–9.3) 3.1 1.8 (0.4–7.0)
Occupation
 Student/pupil 2.1 1.2 (0.5–3.0) 0.132 0.6 0.3 (0.0–2.2) < 0.001
 Employed 6.8 4.1 (1.7–9.6) 9.3 6.4 (3.6–11.1)
 Unemployed 4.5 2.7 (0.4–17.1) 0.0
Number of biological children
 0 2.6 1.5 (0.8–3.0) 0.012 2.3 1.3 (0.6–2.8) < 0.001
 > = 1 12.0 7.3 (2.3–20.9) 24.0 15.4 (6.8–31.5)
Gender identity
 Man 2.5 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 0.699 4.5 2.6 (1.4–5.0) 0.692
 Woman 4.6 2.7 (0.4–17.1) 4.0 2.3 (0.7–7.1)
 Intersex 5.5 3.2 (1.2–8.6) 1.9 1.1 (0.2–7.5)
Sexual orientation
 Gay/homosexual 3.5 2.1 (0.9–4.6) 0.925 3.8 2.2 (1.1–4.7) 0.906
 Bisexual 3.4 2.0 (0.8–4.7) 3.9 2.3 (0.9–5.4)
Heterosexual 0.0 7.7 4.6 (0.6–27.2)
Transgender 0.0 0.0  
Had insertive anal sex in the past 12 months
 No 5.3 3.1 (0.4–19.5) 0.623 7.6 4.5 (1.9–10.6) 0.092
 Yes 3.2 1.9 (1.0–3.5) 3.0 1.8 (0.9–3.5)
Had receptive anal sex in the past 12 months
 No 2.7 1.5 (0.5–04.7) 0.636 2.5 1.5 (0.5–4.5) 0.328
 Yes 3.6 2.1 (1.1–4.2) 4.7 2.8 (1.5–5.2)
Number of male anal sex partners during the last 12 months
 1 2.7 1.6 (0.4–6.1) 0.845 2.2 1.3 (0.3–4.9) 0.572
 2 3.0 1.8 (0.7–4.6) 4.8 2.8 (1.1–6.4)
 > = 3 4.0 2.4 (1.0–5.6) 4.6 2.7 (1.1–6.5)
At least 2 sexual partners currently
 No 8.3 1.3 (0.6–2.9) 0.017 4.0 2.3 (1.3–4.3) 0.974
 Yes 2.2 5.0 (2.0–11.6) 4.0 2.3 (0.7–7.0)
Tested for STIs during the last 12 months
 No 2.5 1.4 (0.6–3.2) 0.432 3.1 1.8 (0.9–3.6) 0.099
 Yes 5.7 3.4 (1.4–8.0) 7.5 4.4 (1.8–10.4)
Knowledge of the type of sex with the highest risk of HIV acquisition
 Vaginal sex is higher risk 1.6 0.9 (0.2–3.7) 0.046 1.3 0.7 (0.1–5.0) 0.103
 Anal sex is higher risk 7.7 4.6 (1.5–13.6) 0.0 0.0
 Oral sex is higher risk 0.0 0.0 1.1 6.7 (0.9–36.8)
 Vaginal, anal and oral sex have similar risk 3.3 1.9 (0.8–4.6) 6.8 4.1 (2.2–7.3)
 Don’t know 25.0 16.1 (1.9–65.2) 0.0 0.0
Knowledge of the type of anal sex with the highest risk of HIV acquisition
 Receptive anal sex is higher risk 7.0 4.2 (1.5–10.8) 0.301 2.4 1.7 (0.2–11.4) 0.555
 Insertive anal sex is higher risk 0.0 0.0 2.9 1.4 (0.2–9.6)
 Receptive and insertive anal intercourse have similar risk 2.6 1.5 (0.7–3.4) 5.0 2.9 (1.6–5.2)
 Don’t know 0.0 0 0.0 0
Concurrent sexual partners during the last 12 months
Male and female sexual partners
 No 5.0 2.9 (1.5–5.6) 0.065 3.4 2.0 (0.9–4.4) 0.579
 Yes 1.3 0.8 (0.2–3.1) 4.6 2.7 (1.3–5.7)
At least 2 male sexual partners
 No 2.9 1.7 (0.5–5.2) 0.785 3.1 1.8 (0.7–4.8) 0.509
 Yes 3.5 2.0 (1.0–4.1) 4.6 2.7 (1.4–5.1)
At least 2 female sexual partners
 No 4.1 2.4 (1.2–4.6) 0.282 4.3 2.5 (1.4–4.5) 0.639
 Yes 1.8 1.1 (0.3–4.2) 3.0 1.7 (0.4–6.8)
Condom use during the last sexual intercourse
With a regular male sexual partner
 No 1.9 1.1 (0.1–7.4) 0.499 2.4 1.4 (0.4–5.6) 0.665
 Yes 3.7 2.2 (1.1–4.1) 3.4 2.0 (1.0–4.2)
With a casual male sexual partner
 No 2.9 1.7 (0.2–11.5) 0.776 3.0 1.8 (0.2–11.8) 0.590
 Yes 4.0 2.3 (1.2–4.4) 5.2 3.1 (1.7–5.7)
With a regular female sexual partner
 No 5.9 3.5 (0.8–13.3) 0.195 7.4 4.4 (1.1–16.6) 0.433
 Yes 1.8 1.0 (0.2–4.1) 3.9 2.3 (0.8–6.0)
With a casual female sexual partner
 No 0.0 0.0 0.661 0.0 0 0.506
 Yes 1.6 0.9 (0.2–3.6) 4.4 2.6 (1.0–6.9)
Consistent use of condoms
With a regular male sexual partner
 No 4.9 2.9 (1.4–6.0) 0.158 2.2 1.3 (0.4–3.9) 0.359
 Yes 1.9 1.1 (0.4–3.5) 4.1 2.4 (1.1–5.3)
With a casual male sexual partner
 No 2.5 1.5 (0.4–5.8) 0.481 5.8 3.4 (1.4–8.1) 0.649
 Yes 4.4 2.6 (1.3–5.1) 4.4 2.6 (1.2–5.8)
With a regular female sexual partner
 No 4.1 2.4 (0.8–7.3) 0.313 6.4 3.8 (1.2–11.4) 0.472
 Yes 1.4 0.8 (0.1–5.5) 3.6 2.1 (0.7–6.5)
With a casual female sexual partner
 No 0.0 0 .0   0.0 0.0 0.241
 Yes 1.9 1.1 (0.3–4.3) 5.3 3.1 (1.2–8.3)
Ever experienced condom breakage during anal sex with men (the last 12 months)
 No 1.7 1.0 (0.4–2.7) 0.033 2.7 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 0.093
 Yes 6.2 3.7 (1.6–8.0) 6.6 03.9 (1.9–8.1)
  1. *Married or cohabiting, divorced, separated