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Table 2 Associations of gender disadvantage and psychosocial buffers with psychological distress among adolescent girls (aged 13–14 years) in north Karnataka, south India, 2014

From: Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among 13–14 year old adolescent girls in North Karnataka, South India: a cross-sectional study

  % of the sample (N = 1191) Do not have hope for the future Feeling down, depressed or hopeless past 2 weeks Suicidal thoughts past 2 weeks
Prevalence (N = 1177) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value Prevalence (N = 1189) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value Prevalence (N = 1169) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value
Total   413/1177 (35.1)    82/1189 (6.9)    25/1144 (2.1)   
Gender disadvantage
Sexual abuse evera
  No 98.4 384/1103 (34.8) 1.0   66/1115 (5.9) 1.0   18/1102 (1.6) 1.0  
  Yes 1.6 4/18 (22.2) 0.5 (0.2–1.6) 0.3 1/18 (5.6) 0.9 (0.1–7.1) 0.9 3/18 (16.7) 12.0 (3.2–45.3) < 0.001
Recent eve teasing2
  No 92.0 369/1076 (34.3) 1.0   67/1087 (6.2) 1.0   21/1076 (2.0) 1.0  
  Yes 8.0 43/94 (45.7) 1.6 (1.1–2.5) 0.027 15/95 (15.8) 2.9 (1.6–5.2) 0.001 4/92 (4.4) 2.3 (0.8–6.8) 0.14
Harassing/abusive school environment
  No 95.9 395/1128 (35.0) 1.0   71/1140 (6.2) 1.0   23/1121 (2.1) 1.0  
  Yes 4.1 18/49 (36.7) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 0.8 11/49 (22.5) 4.4 (2.1–8.9) < 0.001 2/48 (4.2) 2.1 (0.5–9.1) 0.3
Started Menstruating3
  No 38.5 179/448 (40.0) 1.0 0.007 27/454 (6.0) 1.0 0.3 6/449 (1.3) 1.0 0.13
  Yes 61.5 232/721 (32.2) 0.7 (0.6–0.9)   55/727 (7.6) 1.3 (0.8–2.1)   19/718 (2.7) 2.0 (0.8–5.1)  
Marital status
  Never married 95.3 389/1121 (34.7) 1.0   79/1134 (7.0) 1.0   23/1113 (2.1) 1.0  
  Engaged 1.1 8/13 (61.5) 3.0 (1.0–9.3) 0.055 1/13 (7.7) 1.1 (0.1–8.7) 0.9 0/13 (0.0)
  Married 3.6 16/43 (37.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 0.7 2.42 (4.8) 0.7 (0.2–2.8) 0.6 2/43 (4.7) 2.3 (0.5–10.1) 0.3
Schooling status
  In school 84.6 342/996 (34.3) 1.0   58/1007 (5.8) 1.0   17/988 (1.7) 1.0  
  Frequently absent 7.4 30/87 (34.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 1.0 14/88 (15.9) 3.1 (1.6–5.8) < 0.001 2/86 (2.3) 1.4 (0.3–6.0) 0.7
  Dropped out 8.0 41/94 (43.6) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.073 10/94 (10.6) 1.9 (1.0–4.0) 0.065 6/95 (6.3) 3.9 (1.5–10.0) 0.006
Psychosocial resources
Social Integration
  Membership and participation in informal groups
   None/Low 32.1 180/377 (47.8) 1.0   28/380 (7.4) 1.0   10/370 (2.7) 1.0  
   Medium/High 67.9 233/800 (29.1) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) < 0.001 54/809 (6.7) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.7 15/799 (1.9) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.4
  New friends past year
   No 34.2 164/397 (41.3) 1.0   26/406 (6.4) 1.0   9/395 (2.3) 1.0  
   Yes 65.8 248/779 (31.8) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.001 56/781 (7.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.6 16/771 (2.1) 0.9 (0.3–1.6) 0.8
Emotional support
  Can talk to family if something troubling you
   No 6.3 25/74 (33.8) 1.0   8/74 (10.8) 1.0   7/72 (9.7) 1.0  
   Yes 93.7 386/1097 (35.2) 1.1 (0.6–1.7) 0.8 72/1108 (6.5) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.2 17/1089 (1.6) 0.1 (0.1–0.4) < 0.001
  Have someone can talk to if conflict with parents
 No 46.6 226/546 (41.4) 1.0   45/553 (8.1) 1.0   11/545 (2.0) 1.0  
   Yes 53.4 186/630 (29.5) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) < 0.001 37/634 (5.8) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.12 14/621 (2.3) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.8
Empowerment
  Self-efficacy
   Low 28.8 141/335 (42.1) 1.0   19/341 (5.6) 1.0   6/335 (1.8) 1.0  
   Medium/High 71.2 272/842 (32.3) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.002 63/848 (7.4) 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 0.3 19/834 (2.3) 1.3 (0.5–3.2) 0.6
  Spoken out against gender disadvantage
   Low 38.6 188/454 (41.4) 1.0   31/458 (6.8) 1.0   10/447 (2.2) 1.0  
   Medium/High 61.4 225/723 (31.1) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) < 0.001 51/731 (7.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 0.9 15/722 (2.1) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.9
  1. aData missing for 56 participants (4.7%). 2Data missing for 7 participants (0.6%). 3Data missing for 8 participants (0.7%)