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Table 1 Associations of socioeconomic factors with psychological distress among adolescent girls (aged 13–14 years) in north Karnataka, south India, 2014

From: Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among 13–14 year old adolescent girls in North Karnataka, South India: a cross-sectional study

  % of the sample (N = 1191) Do not have hope for the future Feeling down, depressed or hopeless (past 2 weeks) Suicidal thoughts (past 2 weeks)
Prevalence (N = 1177) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value Prevalence (N = 1189) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value Prevalence (N = 1169) Univariate OR (95% CI) P value
Total   413/1177 (35.1)    82/1189 (6.9)    25/1144 (2.1)   
Socioeconomic factors
Age (years)
   ≤ 13 years 96.6 401/1136 (35.3) 1.0   77/1148 (6.7) 1.0   22/1128 (2.0) 1.0  
  14+ years 3.4 12/41 (29.3) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.4 5/41 (12.2) 1.9 (0.7-5.1) 0.2 3/41 (7.3) 4.0 (1.1-13.8) 0.031
Median (years) 13.0  
Caste
  Scheduled caste 77.3 314/910 (34.5) 1.0   707/919 (7.6) 1.0   21/910 (2.3) 1.0  
  Scheduled tribe 22.7 99/267 (37.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.4 12/270 (4.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.074 4/259 (1.5) 0.7 (0.2–2.0) 0.5
Orphan hood
  Both parents alive 84.1 334/988 (33.8) 1.0   72/1000 (7.2) 1.0   21/984 (2.1) 1.0  
  One/both parents dead 16.0 79/189 (41.8) 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 0.035 10/189 (5.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.3 4/185 (2.2) 1.0 (0.3–3.0) 1.0
Number of siblings
  0–2 36.6 158/432 (36.6) 1.0   31/436 (7.1) 1.0   5/427 (1.2) 1.0  
  3 32.2 136/381 (35.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.8 24/383 (6.3) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.6 9/376 (2.4) 2.1 (0.7–6.2) 0.2
  4–9 31.2 119/364 (32.7) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.3 27/370 (7.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.9 11/365 (3.0) 2.6 (0.9–7.6) 0.076
  Median 3.0  
Literacy household head
  Illiterate 63.3 281/745 (37.7) 1.0   46/753 (6.1) 1.0   12/740 (1.6) 1.0  
  Literate 36.7 132/431 (30.6) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.014 36/435 (8.3) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 0.2 13/428 (3.0) 1.9 (0.9–4.2) 0.1
Household wealth index
  Poorest 29.6 105/346 (30.4) 1.0   25/352 (7.1) 1.0   8/344 (2.3) 1.0  
  Medium 33.4 158/394 (40.1) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.006 22/398 (5.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.4 9/392 (2.3) 1.0 (0.4–2.6) 1.0
  Richest 37.0 150/437 (34.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.24 35/439 (8.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.6 8/433 (1.9) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.6
Parents migrated for work past yeara
  No 83.3 348/979 (35.6) 1.0   68/987 (6.9) 1.0   21/967 (2.2) 1.0  
  Yes 16.7 63/193 (32.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 0.4 13/198 (6.6) 0.9 (0.5–1.8) 0.9 4/196 (2.0) 0.9 (0.3–2.8) 1.0
Girl migrated for work past year
  No 91.6 383/1077 (35.6) 1.0   77/1089 (7.1) 1.0   21/1071 (2.0) 1.0  
  Yes 8.4 30/100 (30.) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.3 5/100 (5.0) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 0.4 4/98 (4.1) 2.1 (0.7–6.3) 0.2
District
  Bagalkote 57.2 265/679 (39.0) 1.0   30/681 (4.4) 1.0   14/663 (2.1) 1.0  
  Vijayapura 42.8 148/498 (29.7) 0.7 (0.5–0.8) 0.001 52/508 (10.2) 2.5 (1.6–3.9) < 0.001 11/506 (2.2) 1.0 (0.5–2.3) 0.9
  1. aData missing for 6 participants (0.5%)