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Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds of food insecurity in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, Canada, 2011–12 (n = 120,909)

From: Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011–12

  OR (95% CI)
Crude Adjusted
Provinces and territories
 Newfoundland and Labrador 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 0.86 (0.74–1.04)
 Prince Edward Island 1.41 (1.16–1.71) 1.34 (1.10–1.63)
 Nova Scotia 1.57 (1.37–1.79) 1.50 (1.30–1.74)
 New Brunswick 1.43 (1.27–1.61) 1.38 (1.22–1.56)
 Quebec 1.12 (1.03–1.22) 0.89 (0.81–0.97)
 Ontario 1.00 1.00
 Manitoba 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 0.99 (0.85–1.16)
 Saskatchewan 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 1.00 (0.86–1.15)
 Alberta 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 1.34 (1.16–1.53)
 British Columbia 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 1.03 (0.92–1.15)
 Yukon 1.53 (1.27–1.85) 1.27 (1.03–1.57)
 Northwest Territories 1.62 (1.28–2.05) 1.54 (1.24–1.92)
 Nunavut 5.20 (4.08–6.64) 2.85 (2.02–4.02)
Household incomea 0.95 (0.95–0.96) 0.97 (0.96–0.97)
Main source of household income
 Wages/salaries or self-employment 1.00 1.00
 Seniors’ income, including pensions, dividends and interest 0.63 (0.58–0.69) 0.41 (0.37–0.46)
 Employment insurance or workers compensation 4.93 (3.99–6.08) 2.14 (1.70–2.70)
 Social assistance 16.69 (14.73–18.91) 3.24 (2.79–3.75)
 Other or noneb 3.39 (2.87–4.01) 1.16 (0.96–1.39)
 Missing 0.80 (0.69–0.92) 0.47 (0.40–0.55)
Education (highest level in household)
 Less than completed high school 4.06 (3.60–4.57) 1.54 (1.33–1.77)
 Completed high school 3.02 (2.69–3.39) 1.48 (1.30–1.70)
 Some post-secondary 4.64 (4.00–5.38) 1.86 (1.57–2.21)
 Completed post-secondary, below bachelors degree 2.36 (2.13–2.60) 1.61 (1.45–1.80)
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 1.00 1.00
 Missing 2.30 (1.98, 2.66) 1.48 (1.26, 1.75)
Household structure c
 Unattached, living alone or with others 3.35 (3.06–3.66) 1.58 (1.43–1.75)
 Couple, no children 1.00 1.00
 Couple with children 1.94 (1.77–2.14) 1.56 (1.40–1.73)
 Female lone parent 6.41 (5.70–7.22) 1.98 (1.74–2.26)
 Male lone parent 3.02 (2.32–3.93) 1.44 (1.10–1.87)
 Other or missing 3.01 (2.34–3.87) 2.03 (1.55–2.66)
Housing tenure   
 Owner 1.00 1.00
 Renter 4.94 (4.63–5.26) 2.33 (2.16–2.52)
 Missing 2.57 (1.71–3.87) 1.46 (0.95–2.24)
Cultural/racial identity
 Non-aboriginal 1.00 1.00
 Aboriginal 2.84 (2.55–3.17) 1.54 (1.34–1.78)
Immigrant
 Canadian born 1.00 1.00
 Immigrant < 10 years 1.57 (1.35–1.82) 0.91 (0.76–1.08)
 Immigrant, ≥ 10 years 0.83 (0.75–0.91) 0.89 (0.80–0.99)
 Missing 1.67 (1.15–2.42) 1.19 (0.82–1.72)
Urban/rural residence
 Population centre 1.00 1.00
 Rural 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 0.99 (0.91–1.07)
  1. aBefore-tax income, in thousands of Canadian dollars, adjusted for family size by dividing by the square root of household size
  2. b‘Other or none’ includes child benefits, child support and alimony
  3. cHouseholds identified as including children were those with at least one person under the age of 18