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Table 2 Factors associated with undesirable screeninga for tuberculosis among PLHIV in the AMPATH programme, Kenya (2015–2016)

From: Screening and testing for tuberculosis among the HIV-infected: outcomes from a large HIV programme in western Kenya

Variable Total Undesirable Screeninga cRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI)
N N (%)   
Gender
 Female 59,027 25,827 (43.8) 1 1
 Male 31,427 13,946 (44.4) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.99 (0.98–1.01)
Age (years)
 35–44 25,836 11,058 (42.8) 1 1
 0–4 6086 2363 (38.8) 0.91 (0.88–0.94) 0.93 (0.87–0.99)
 5–9 3442 1691 (49.1) 1.15 (1.11–1.19) 0.99 (0.93–1.05)
 10–19 5652 3355 (59.4) 1.39 (1.35–1.42) 1.05 (1.00–1.11)
 20–24 2750 966 (35.1) 0.82 (0.78–0.87) 0.92 (0.87–0.96)
 25–34 14,725 5309 (36.1) 0.84 (0.82–0.86) 0.93 (0.90–0.95)
 45–54 19,892 9452 (47.5) 1.11 (1.09–1.13) 1.07 (1.05–1.09)
 55–64 9394 4364 (46.5) 1.09 (1.06–1.11) 1.04 (1.01–1.06)
 65+ 2664 1211 (45.5) 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 1.00 (0.96–1.05)
Clinic category
 Adults clinics 71,765 31,126 (43.4) 1 1
 Paediatric clinics 13,978 6923 (49.5) 1.14 (1.12–1.16) 1.27 (1.20–1.34)
 Youth clinics 383 126 (32.9) 0.76 (0.66–0.88) 0.80 (0.67–0.94)
 PMTCT clinics 4328 1598 (36.9) 0.85 (0.82–0.89) 0.89 (0.85–0.92)
Uptake of ART
 Not on ART 15,302 5979 (39.1) 1 1
 On ART 68,366 32,541 (47.6) 1.22 (1.19–1.24) 1.16 (1.13–1.18)
Total encounters     1.05 (1.04–1.05) 1.04 (1.04–1.04)
Clinic volumeb
 High volume (pts) 74,900 33,334 (44.5) 1 1
 Medium volume (pts) 12,687 5415 (42.7) 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.92 (0.90–0.94)
 Low volume (pts) 2322 839 (36.1) 0.81 (0.77–0.86) 0.85 (0.80–0.89)
 Very low volume (pts) 545 185 (33.9) 0.76 (0.68–0.86) 0.94 (0.84–1.04)
  1. cRR – crude/unadjusted relative risk, aRR – adjusted relative risk, CI – Confidence, PLHIV – People Living with HIV, PMTCT – prevention of mother to child transmission, ART – antiretroviral therapy, pts. – total patients
  2. aScreening defined as ‘Undesirable’ if a patient was recorded to have been screened for tuberculosis in < 90% of his/her clinical encounters
  3. bHigh volume clinics – had 1634+ PLHIV; Medium volume – 327 to 1633 PLHIV; Low volume – 89 to 326 PLHIV; Very low volume – < 89 PLHIV; based on equal number of clinics per subcategory
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