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Table 1 Characteristics of interventions included (n = 23)

From: Evidence on the effectiveness of health literacy interventions in the EU: a systematic review

Characteristics  
Publication year 2005 (n = 2)
2007 (n = 1)
2010 (n = 2)
2011 (n = 3)
2012 (n = 5)
2013 (n = 3)
2015 (n = 2)
2016 (n = 3)
2017 (n = 2)
Country Austria (n = 3)a
Denmark (n = 3)a
Germany (n = 6)a
Ireland (n = 2)a
Netherlands (n = 4)
United Kingdom (n = 8)a
Taiwan (n = 1)a
Study design Cohort analytic group design (n = 2)
Cohort (one group pre/post) (n = 9)
Controlled trial (n = 5)
Interrupted time series (n = 1)
Randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n = 5)
Observational study (n = 1)
Study Setting Community (n = 6)
Health Professionals (n = 2)
Outpatients (n = 5)
Telephone and/or mail intervention (n = 10)
Duration of intervention and follow-up No follow-up (n = 13)
Follow up ≤3 months (n = 4)
Follow-up> 3 months (n = 4)
Unknown (n = 2)
Age of participants Children (8–12) (n = 1)
Adults (> 16) (n = 22)
Health Literacy Measure Critical Health Competence List (n = 1)
Brief questions to identify patient with inadequate health literacy (n = 1)
Critical HL assessed by interview (n = 1)
Level of Knowledge (n = 3)
REALM-R (n = 2)
Newest Vital Sign Test (n = 1)
Level of reading ability (n = 2)
Level of mild intellectual disabilities (n = 1)
Numeracy competence (n = 4)
Skills towards decision making in a health context (n = 1)
Not specified (n = 1)
Danish version of TOFHLA (n = 3)
Dutch version of SAHL (n = 2)
Focus of included studies Disease specific: (n = 9) of which Diabetes (n = 5), Cancer (n = 1), COPD (n = 3), Osteoarthritis (n = 1), Rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1), Multiple Sclerosis (n = 1), Renal patients (n = 1);
People working or using health care (n = 2)
Hard to reach groups (n = 3)
Outpatients not specified (n = 1)
People with mild intellectual disabilities (n = 1)
Smokers (n = 1)
General population (n = 4)
Health issues Diabetes, Cancer, OA, MS, RA, participation in treatment, knowledge, understanding of medication, adherence to medication, interpretation of information about treatment, appraisal skills in judging medical information, self-management, active participation in treatment, empowerment, self-management skills and confidence, motivation to self-manage, risk-communication, decision-making in medical treatment, symptom monitoring and recognition, reaching disadvantaged groups, health promotion, health status, social participation and integration, access to health care, health care use, communication of medical information.
  1. aThe total number of countries is more than 23, because the study of Muller et al. was performed in the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Ireland, and Taiwan
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