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Table 1 Socio-demographic situation, risk factors, chronic diseases and mental health comparison

From: Increasing gaps in health inequalities related to non-communicable diseases in South Australia; implications towards behavioural risk factor surveillance systems to provide evidence for action

  2002/4 2013/15 Cmp 2002/4 and 2013/15
n % (95% CI) P valuea n % (95% CI) P valueb P valuec
Demograpic Variables
 Educational attainment
  No schooling to secondary 7932 62.8 (62.0–63.6)   7969 47.7 (47.0–48.5)   < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 3112 24.6 (23.9–25.4)   5602 33.5 (32.8–34.3)   
  Degree or higher 1587 12.6 (12.0–13.2)   3132 18.7 (18.2–19.3)   
 Household money situation
  Unable to save 4238 33.5 (32.7–34.3)   4654 27.8 (27.1–28.5)   < 0.001
  Can save 7974 63.0 (62.2–63.9)   11,152 66.6 (65.9–67.3)   
  Not stated 438 3.5 (3.2–3.8) *   930 5.6 (5.2–5.9)   
Risk Factors
 Overweight/Obesity 6487 54.9 (54.0–55.8)   9570 60.8 (60.1–61.6)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 4104 56.1 (55.0–57.2) < 0.001 4569 61.9 (60.8–63.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 1655 55.9 (54.1–57.7)   3445 65.0 (63.7–66.3)   < 0.001
  Degree or higher 720 47.5 (45.0–50.0)   1548 51.0 (49.2–52.8)   0.03
  Unable to save 2280 58.3 (56.8–59.9) < 0.001 2764 63.2 (61.8–64.7) .001 < 0.001
  Can save 4033 53.6 (52.5–54.8)   6383 60.4 (59.5–61.4)   < 0.001
 Obese 2270 19.2 (18.5–20.0)   4165 26.5 (25.8–27.2)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 1516 20.7 (19.8–21.7) < 0.001 2085 28.2 (27.2–29.3) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 555 18.8 (17.4–20.2)   1521 28.7 (27.5–30.0)   < 0.001
  Degree or higher 198 13.1 (11.5–14.9)   557 18.3 (17.0–19.8)   < 0.001
  Unable to save 911 23.3 (22.0–24.7) < 0.001 1370 31.3 (30.0–32.7) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Can save 1300 17.3 (16.5–18.2)   2626 24.9 (24.1–25.7)   < 0.001
 Sufficient fruit consumption 5026 39.7 (38.9–40.6)   7062 42.3 (41.6–43.1)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 3070 38.7 (37.6–39.8) < 0.001 3224 40.6 (39.5–41.7) < 0.001 0.02
  Trade, certificate, diploma 1202 38.6 (36.9–40.3)   2302 41.1 (39.9–42.4)   0.02
  Degree or higher 744 46.9 (44.4–49.4)   1526 48.7 (47.0–50.5)   0.23
  Unable to save 1466 34.6 (33.2–36.0) < 0.001 1653 35.6 (34.3–37.0) < 0.001 0.31
  Can save 3386 42.5 (41.4–43.6)   5024 45.1 (44.2–46.0)   < 0.001
Chronic Conditions
 Diabetes 875 6.9 (6.5–7.4)   1516 9.1 (8.6–9.5)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 609 7.7 (7.1–8.3) < 0.001 822 10.3 (9.7–11.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 184 5.9 (5.1–6.8)   507 9.1 (8.3–9.8)   < 0.001
  Degree or higher 80 5.1 (4.1–6.2)   184 5.9 (5.1–6.7)   0.25
  Unable to save 343 8.1 (7.3–9.0) < 0.001 524 11.3 (10.4–12.2) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Can save 513 6.4 (5.9–7.0)   916 8.2 (7.7–8.7)   < 0.001
 Current mental health condition 1987 15.7 (15.1–16.4)   3364 20.1 (19.5–20.7)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 1240 15.6 (14.8–16.4) 0.74 1659 20.8 (19.9–21.7) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 501 16.1 (14.9–17.4)   1209 21.6 (20.5–22.7)   < 0.001
  Degree or higher 243 15.3 (13.6–17.2)   494 15.8 (14.5–17.1)   0.68
  Unable to save 1007 23.8 (22.5–25.1) < 0.001 1411 30.3 (29.0–31.7) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Can save 918 11.5 (10.8–12.2) < 0.001 1790 16.0 (15.4–16.7)   < 0.001
 Psychological distress 1533 12.1 (11.5–12.7)   1678 10.1 (9.6–10.6)   < 0.001
  No schooling to secondary 1058 13.3 (12.6–14.1) < 0.001 841 10.7 (10.0–11.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 318 10.2 (9.2–11.3)   633 11.3 (10.5–12.2)   0.11
  Degree or higher 152 9.6 (8.2–11.1)   203 6.5 (5.7–7.4)   < 0.001
  Unable to save 876 20.7 (19.5–21.9) < 0.001 826 17.9 (16.8–19.0) < 0.001 0.001
  Can save 607 7.6 (7.0–8.2)   778 7.0 (6.5–7.5)   0.11
 At least one Chronic Condition 5063 40.0 (39.2–40.9)   6664 39.8 (39.1–40.6)   0.73
  No schooling to secondary 3407 42.9 (41.9–44.0) < 0.001 3537 44.4 (43.3–45.5) < 0.001 0.07
  Trade, certificate, diploma 1175 37.8 (36.1–39.5)   2194 39.2 (37.9–40.4)   0.20
  Degree or higher 471 29.7 (27.5–32.0)   924 29.5 (27.9–31.1)   0.91
  Unable to save 1891 44.6 (43.1–46.1) < 0.001 2133 45.8 (44.4–47.3) < 0.001 0.26
  Can save 3025 37.9 (36.9–39.0)   4189 37.6 (36.7–38.5)   0.60
 Two or more Chronic Conditions 1538 12.2 (11.6–12.8)   2172 13.0 (12.4–13.6)   0.04
  No schooling to secondary 1111 14.0 (13.3–14.8) < 0.001 1326 16.6 (15.8–17.5) < 0.001 0.001
  Trade, certificate, diploma 320 10.3 (9.3–11.4)   639 11.4 (10.6–12.3)   0.11
  Degree or higher 104 6.5 (5.4–7.9)   204 6.5 (5.7–7.4)   0.98
  Unable to save 614 14.5 (13.5–15.6) < 0.001 815 17.5 (16.5–18.6) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Can save 890 11.2 (10.5–11.9)   1240 11.1 (10.5–11.7)   0.92
  1. Note a – p values are associated with chi-squared test of risk factor/chronic condition and educational attainment/household money situation for 2002/4 only; b: p values are associated with chi-squared test of risk factor/chronic condition and educational attainment/household money situation for 2013/15 only; c: p values are associated with chi-squared test for trend between two time points, 2002/4 and 2013/15 for corresponding risk factor/chronic condition, and for each category of educational attainment/household money situation by risk factor/chronic condition