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Table 1 Characteristics of the ALSPAC-enrolled sample and complete cases

From: Is screen time associated with anxiety or depression in young people? Results from a UK birth cohort

   Enrolled singletons and twins, alive at 1 year and not withdrawn from the study (n = 14,665)1 Complete cases (n = 1869)
Sex Male Female 7524 (51%) 7141 (49%) 802 (43%) 1067 (57%)
Maternal age < 25 25–29 30+ 3336 (24%) 5394 (39%) 5224 (37%) 173 (9%) 694 (37%) 1002 (54%)
Mother’s education2 CSE/vocational O level A level Degree/higher 3723 (30%) 4287 (35%) 2786 (22%) 1599 (13%) 237 (13%) 620 (33%) 570 (31%) 442 (24%)
Family occupational social3 class Non-manual Manual 9254 (81%) 2231 (19%) 1698 (91%) 171 (9%)
Maternal anxiety No Yes 4808 (51%) 4584 (49%) 1158 (62%) 711 (38%)
Biological father lives with child (age 4) No Yes 1217 (13%) 8270 (87%) 123 (7%) 1746 (93%)
Parental conflict No Yes 10,008 (88%) 1305 (12%) 1719 (92%) 150 (8%)
Child bullied since age 12 (at age 16) No Yes 4175 (83%) 885 (18%) 1549 (83%) 320 (17%)
Child IQ (age 8) Mean (SD) 104 (17)5 110 (15)
Maternal depression (EPDS)4 Mean (SD) 5 (5)6 5 (4)
Number living in home Median (IQR) 4 (4–5)7 4 (4–4)
Early family TV use score Mean (SD) 4 (2)8 3 (2)
TV, weekdays None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 1306 (26%) 2648 (52%) 1118 (22%) 475 (25%) 1030 (55%) 364 (19%)
Texting, weekdays None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 2990 (59%) 1177 (23%) 898 (18%) 1199 (64%) 404 (22%) 266 (14%)
Computer use, weekdays None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 1171 (23%) 2416 (48%) 1481 (29%) 421 (23%) 928 (50%) 520 (28%)
TV, weekends None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 1015 (21%) 2270 (46%) 1615 (33%) 359 (19%) 914 (49%) 596 (32%)
Texting, weekends None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 2689 (55%) 1188 (24%) 1024 (21%) 1104 (59%) 436 (23%) 329 (18%)
Computer use, weekends None/< 1 h 1–2 h 3+ hours 1108 (23%) 1950 (40%) 1843 (38%) 388 (21%) 770 (41%) 711 (38%)
Anxiety No Symptoms Diagnosis 2410 (53%) 1630 (36%) 522 (11%) 1000 (54%) 686 (37%) 183 (10%)
Depression No Symptoms Diagnosis 2736 (60%) 1466 (32%) 360 (8%) 1143 (61%) 598 (32%) 128 (7%)
  1. 1Denominators vary because the variables come from different questionnaires and have different completion rates.
  2. 2CSEs (Certificate of Secondary Education)/ and O levels were qualifications taken at age 16 – now replaced by GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary Education) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A levels are exams taken at age 18 in these countries.
  3. 3Family occupational social class was based on the higher of the mother or partner’s occupational social class using the 1991 British Office of Population and Census Statistics (OPCS) classification and was dichotomized into non-manual (professional, managerial or skilled professions) and manual (partly or unskilled occupations).
  4. 4Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) [25]
  5. 5N = 7341
  6. 6N = 11,173
  7. 7N = 9472
  8. 8N = 10,654