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Table 1 Characteristics of the ALSPAC-enrolled sample and complete cases

From: Is screen time associated with anxiety or depression in young people? Results from a UK birth cohort

   Enrolled singletons and twins, alive at 1 year and not withdrawn from the study (n = 14,665)1 Complete cases (n = 1869)
Sex Male
Female
7524 (51%)
7141 (49%)
802 (43%)
1067 (57%)
Maternal age < 25
25–29
30+
3336 (24%)
5394 (39%)
5224 (37%)
173 (9%)
694 (37%)
1002 (54%)
Mother’s education2 CSE/vocational
O level
A level
Degree/higher
3723 (30%)
4287 (35%)
2786 (22%)
1599 (13%)
237 (13%)
620 (33%)
570 (31%)
442 (24%)
Family occupational social3 class Non-manual
Manual
9254 (81%)
2231 (19%)
1698 (91%)
171 (9%)
Maternal anxiety No
Yes
4808 (51%)
4584 (49%)
1158 (62%)
711 (38%)
Biological father lives with child (age 4) No
Yes
1217 (13%)
8270 (87%)
123 (7%)
1746 (93%)
Parental conflict No
Yes
10,008 (88%)
1305 (12%)
1719 (92%)
150 (8%)
Child bullied since age 12 (at age 16) No
Yes
4175 (83%)
885 (18%)
1549 (83%)
320 (17%)
Child IQ (age 8) Mean (SD) 104 (17)5 110 (15)
Maternal depression (EPDS)4 Mean (SD) 5 (5)6 5 (4)
Number living in home Median (IQR) 4 (4–5)7 4 (4–4)
Early family TV use score Mean (SD) 4 (2)8 3 (2)
TV, weekdays None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
1306 (26%)
2648 (52%)
1118 (22%)
475 (25%)
1030 (55%)
364 (19%)
Texting, weekdays None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
2990 (59%)
1177 (23%)
898 (18%)
1199 (64%)
404 (22%)
266 (14%)
Computer use, weekdays None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
1171 (23%)
2416 (48%)
1481 (29%)
421 (23%)
928 (50%)
520 (28%)
TV, weekends None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
1015 (21%)
2270 (46%)
1615 (33%)
359 (19%)
914 (49%)
596 (32%)
Texting, weekends None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
2689 (55%)
1188 (24%)
1024 (21%)
1104 (59%)
436 (23%)
329 (18%)
Computer use, weekends None/< 1 h
1–2 h
3+ hours
1108 (23%)
1950 (40%)
1843 (38%)
388 (21%)
770 (41%)
711 (38%)
Anxiety No
Symptoms
Diagnosis
2410 (53%)
1630 (36%)
522 (11%)
1000 (54%)
686 (37%)
183 (10%)
Depression No
Symptoms
Diagnosis
2736 (60%)
1466 (32%)
360 (8%)
1143 (61%)
598 (32%)
128 (7%)
  1. 1Denominators vary because the variables come from different questionnaires and have different completion rates.
  2. 2CSEs (Certificate of Secondary Education)/ and O levels were qualifications taken at age 16 – now replaced by GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary Education) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A levels are exams taken at age 18 in these countries.
  3. 3Family occupational social class was based on the higher of the mother or partner’s occupational social class using the 1991 British Office of Population and Census Statistics (OPCS) classification and was dichotomized into non-manual (professional, managerial or skilled professions) and manual (partly or unskilled occupations).
  4. 4Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) [25]
  5. 5N = 7341
  6. 6N = 11,173
  7. 7N = 9472
  8. 8N = 10,654