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Table 4 Results of this analysis

From: Tobacco smoking and semen quality in infertile males: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Endpoints No of studies involved (n) RR or MD with 95% CI P value I2 (%)
Oligozoospermia 4 1.29 [1.05–1.59] 0.02 0
Teratozoospermia 3 1.22 [0.96–1.56] 0.10 0
Asthenozoospermia 4 1.42 [0.97–2.09] 0.07 85
Azoospermia 2 3.02 [0.23–40.01] 0.40 92
pH of semen 4 0.04 [−0.03–0.11] 0.30 92
Impaired motility of sperm (continuous data) 4 1.26 [−0.64–3.17] 0.19 87
Abnormal form of sperm 6 2.44 [0.99–3.89] 0.001 98
Head defects 3 1.76 [0.32–3.20] 0.02 96
Neck defects 3 1.97 [0.75–3.18] 0.002 99
Tail defects 3 1.29 [0.35–2.22] 0.007 98
Testosterone level 4 0.18 [−1.26–1.63] 0.80 94
LH level 3 0.18 [−0.47–0.83] 0.58 66
Prolactin level 2 1.79 [−5.78–9.36] 0.64 95
FSH level 3 0.12 [−0.41–0.64] 0.66 0
  1. Abbreviations: MD mean difference, RR risk ratio, CI confidence intervals, LH luteinizing hormone, FSH follicle stimulating hormone