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Table 3 Other characteristics and reasons for exclusion of participants

From: Tobacco smoking and semen quality in infertile males: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Studies Type of participants Alcohol consumption Reasons for exclusion Patients identification
Al-Turki2014 Primary and secondary infertility Alcohol consumption was controlled Patients with azoospermia Infertility clinic
Al-Turki2016 Primary and secondary infertility More than 87% of participants do not consume alcohol Patients with azoospermia Infertility clinic
Anifandis2014 Not specified 59.9% participants do not consume alcohol, and 28% were moderate consumers   Infertility clinic
Caserta2012 Primary infertility Not specified Patients with azoospermia, orchitis or prostatitis, grade 2 or 3 varicocele, undescended testes or its surgery, altered karyotype Infertility clinic
Cui2016 Primary infertility Not specified Cryptorchidism, varicocele, infections, anti-sperm antibodies, chromosomal abnormalities Infertility clinic
Gaur2007 Primary infertility Not specified Using contraceptive measures, secondary infertility, occupational exposure to chemicals, cryptorchidism, varicocele, chronic illness, leucocytospermia, azoospermia, age > 45 years Infertility clinic
Meri2013 Not specified Not specified Varicocele, undescended testes, small testes, azoospermia, mumps, history of inguinal hernia or scrotal surgery, chronic medical illness Infertility clinic
Mitra2012 Not specified Not specified Pathology of chronic diseases Infertility clinic
Trummer2002 Not specified Not specified Not specified Infertility clinic
Mostafa2006 Not specified Not specified Not specified Infertility clinic
Osser1992 Not specified Not specified Not specified Infertility clinic
Yu2013 Not specified Not specified Unhealthy, varicocele, infection, obstruction of the vas deferens, chromosomal abnormality, azoospermia, severe oligozoospermia, hemospermia, leukospermia, necrozoospermia Infertility clinic
Zhang2013 Not specified Not specified Azoospermia, excessive alcohol intake, hallucinatory drugs, serious systemic disease, abnormality of the external genitalia, known family genital disorders, infection or trauma to genitals Infertility clinic
Zhang2015 Not specified Not specified Not specified Infertility clinic
Dikshit1987 Screening for idiopathic infertility No Past or present systemic disease, alcohol consumption, genital tract disorder, varicocele, genital infection, hormonal abnormalities or treatment, exposure to radiation, drug abuse Infertility clinic
Kunzle2003 Men attending the andrology laboratory in the context of infertility investigation Yes History of orchitis, testicular trauma, sexually transmitted
disease, varicocele, inguinal hernia operation and cryptorchism.
Infertility clinic