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Table 1 Studies of ART adherence among people who inject drugs included in systematic review

From: Systematic review of HIV treatment adherence research among people who inject drugs in the United States and Canada: evidence to inform pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence interventions

Author, Year Site(s), Sample Study Design Objective(s) Outcome(s)
Altice et al., 2007 [49] New Haven, CT (n = 141)a Randomized controlled trial Effect of DAART intervention on HIV RNA and CD4 count Viral load suppression, change in CD4 count, and self-reported adherence
Arnsten et al., 2007 [46] Baltimore, MD, Miami, FL, New York, NY, San Francisco, CA (n = 636)b Cross-sectional survey Factors associated with ART adherence and medication errors Self-reported adherence
Azar et al., 2015 [42] Vancouver, BC (n = 692)c Prospective cohort Effect of illicit drug use patterns on ART adherence Pharmacy records (prescription refill data)
Bach et al., 2015 [52] Vancouver, BC (n = 794)d Prospective cohort Effect of methadone discontinuation on ART adherence Pharmacy records (prescription refill data)
Gonzalez et al., 2013 [56] Boston, MA (n = 121) Cross-sectional survey Association of substance use with ART adherence Electronic monitoring (MEMS cap data)
Hadland et al., 2012 [25] Vancouver, BC (n = 545)c Prospective cohort Effect of age on ART adherence and viral load suppression Pharmacy records (prescription refill data), viral load suppression
Ing et al., 2013 [44] New Haven, CT (n = 74)a Prospective cohort within a randomized controlled trial Patterns of medication non-persistence (in DAART intervention group) Electronic monitoring (MEMS cap data), viral load suppression
Joseph et al., 2015 [29] Vancouver, BC (n = 703)d Prospective cohort Predictors of ART adherence Pharmacy records (prescription refill data)
Kang et al., 2011 [26] New York, NY, Bayamón, PR (n = 260) Cross-sectional survey Association of gender with HIV care Self-reported use of HIV medications
Kavasery et al., 2009 [31] Baltimore, MD (n = 335)e Prospective cohort Predictors of ART use and non-use Self-reported dates of ART interruption and initiation
Knowlton et al., 2006 [33] Baltimore, MD, Miami, FL, New York, NY, San Francisco, CA (n = 466)b Cross-sectional survey Factors associated with undetectable viral load Viral load suppression
Knowlton et al., 2010 [34] Baltimore, MD, Miami, FL, New York, NY, San Francisco, CA (n = 703)b Prospective cohort Predictors of ART use Self-reported adherence
Palepu et al., 2006 [32] Vancouver, BC (n = 278)c Prospective cohort Effect of methadone therapy on ART adherence, viral load suppression, and CD4 counts Pharmacy records (prescription refill data), viral load suppression, change in CD4 count
Palepu et al., 2011 [28] Vancouver, BC (n = 545)d Prospective cohort Effect of homelessness on ART adherence Pharmacy records (prescription refill data)
Purcell et al., 2007 [50] Baltimore, MD, Miami, FL, New York, NY, San Francisco, CA (n = 966)b Randomized controlled trial Effect of behavioral intervention on HIV transmission behavior, utilization of primary care, and ART adherence Self-reported sexual and injection behaviors, self-reported number of primary care visits, self-reported adherence
Reddon et al., 2014 [53] Vancouver, BC (n = 408)d Prospective cohort Effect of methadone therapy on ART discontinuation Prescription refill data
Tapp et al., 2011 [27] Vancouver, BC (n = 545)d Prospective cohort Effect of gender on ART adherence Prescription refill data
Uhlmann et al., 2010 [54] Vancouver, BC (n = 231)d Prospective cohort Effect of methadone therapy on ART initiation and adherence Time to first ART use from pharmacy records (prescription refill data)
Waldrop-Valverde et al., 2008 [51] South Florida, FL (n = 57) Cross-sectional survey Associations of low literacy and cognitive impairment with ART adherence Self-reported adherence
Westergaard et al., 2013 [30] Baltimore, MD (n = 790)e Prospective cohort Predictors of linkage to and retention in HIV care, and viral load suppression Self-reported appointment attendance, self-reported lapses in care, viral load suppression
  1. aDAART intervention study in New Haven, CT (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00367172; n = 2)
  2. bINSPIRE study; multisite including Baltimore (n = 4)
  3. cVIDUS study in Vancouver, BC (n = 3)
  4. dACCESS study in Vancouver, BC (n = 6)
  5. eALIVE study in Baltimore, MD (n = 2)