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Table 3 Multivariable relationship between any faith leader’s message about HIV, supportiveness of those messages, and individual homophobia, in association with each HIV prevention variable in the National Survey on HIV in the Black American Community (NSHBC)

From: Faith leaders’ messaging is essential to enhance HIV prevention among black Americans: results from the 2016 National Survey on HIV in the black community (NSHBC).

Religion variable PrEP Awareness (1 = aware) PrEP Willingness (1 = willing) Ever Tested for HIV (1 = yes) Recent HIV testinga(1 = yes)
aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI)
Any faith leader’s message about HIV
 Never attend 1 1 1 1
 Yes, heard 2.06 (1.03, 4.13) 1.62 (0.96, 2.85) 1.15 (0.93, 1.43) 1.12 (0.60, 2.10)
 No 1.71 (1.09, 2.67) 1.41 (1.02, 1.97) 1.08 (0.93, 1.26) 1.19 (0.85, 1.66)
 Unsure 1.60 (0.50, 5.16) 0.92 (0.46, 1.84) 1.27 (1.05, 1.54) 1.96 (1.14, 3.35)
Homophobia 1.31 (1.09, 1.57) 1.12 (0.98, 1.27) 1.00 (0.96, 1.06) 1.16 (1.03, 1.31)
  Adjusted for age and HIV risk Adjusted for education, marital status, depression and HIV risk Adjusted for age, gender, education, time in the US, and HIV risk Adjusted for age, marital status, and HIV risk forced into the model
bSupportiveness of faith leader’s message about HIV
 Never attend services 1 1 1 1
 Attend, no response 1.68 (1.07, 2.62) 1.35 (0.97, 1.87) 1.11 (0.96, 1.29) 1.25 (0.90, 1.74)
 Yes, supportive 2.09 (0.94, 4.63) 1.76 (0.97, 3.18) 1.04 (0.79, 1.36) 1.11 (0.53, 2.33)
 No Omitted Omitted Omitted Omitted
 Unsure 1.45 (0.35, 5.93) 1.76 (0.61, 5.07) 1.43 (1.15, 1.79) 0.70 (0.21, 2.30)
Homophobia 1.40 (1.09, 1.79) 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) 1.00 (0.94, 1.04) 1.16 (1.01, 1.33)
  Adjusted for age and HIV risk Adjusted for education, marital status, depression and HIV risk Adjusted for age, gender, education, time in the US, and HIV risk Adjusted for age, marital status, and *HIV risk forced into the model
  1. Notes. aPR Adjusted Prevalence Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. Covariates in the adjusted models are based on those significant in the bivariate models at p < 0.20
  3. *Estimates were unaltered in a model without HIV risk, which was not significant in the bivariate model
  4. Homophobia is the mean of a seven-item scale measuring ones’ view of same sex couples and homosexuality
  5. a=Tested for HIV in the past 12 months among all participants. Omitted in the regression because of small cell count
  6. b=fit in a separate regression model but presented in the same table