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Table 3 Total costs of low back pain-related direct healthcare costs, intervention costs, days of sickness absence and their costs, and total costs for intervention and total study periods per person in each study group

From: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise and back care counseling in female healthcare workers with recurrent non-specific low back pain: a blinded four-arm randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Combined (n = 53) Exercise (n = 57) Counseling (n = 55) Control (n = 54) p-valuea
Intervention period: 0–6 months
 Total direct healthcare costs: euros (mean; SD) 43 (159) 113 (262) 94 (300) 64 (160) 0.76
 Intervention costs: euros (mean) 343 293 46 0  
 Sickness absence days: number (mean, range) 0.13 (0–4) 0.86 (0–30) 0.97 (0–16) 1.56 (0–31) 0.60
 Sickness absence costs: euros (mean; SD) 48 (244) 315 (1705) 363 (1224) 576 (2020) 0.60
 Total costs: euros (mean, SD) 434 (375) 720 (1773) 502 (1457) 640 (2046) < 0.001
 Number of missing cases 14 15 19 13  
Total study period: 0–12 months
 Total direct costs (healthcare costs): euros (mean; SD) 73 (194) 160 (359) 168 (349) 212 (570) 0.28
 Intervention costs: euros (mean; SD) 343 293 46 0  
 Sickness absence days: number (mean, range) 0.15 (0–4) 4.17 (0–113) 2.30 (0–16) 2.29 (0–51) 0.025
 Sickness absence costs: euros (mean; SD) 55 (261) 1529 (7069) 857 (1560) 846 (3212) 0.025
 Total costs: euros (mean, SD) 476 (413) 1992 (7317) 1074 (1800) 1062 (3392) < 0.001
 Number of missing cases 19 22 28 16  
  1. aKruskal-Wallis H test