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Table 2 Baseline data on clinical features of low back pain (LBP) and the outcome measures of effectiveness by study group

From: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise and back care counseling in female healthcare workers with recurrent non-specific low back pain: a blinded four-arm randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Combined (n = 53) Exercise (n = 57) Counseling (n = 55) Control (n = 54) Total (n = 219) Missing
Intensity of LBP; VAS (0–100 mm): mean (sd) 39.9 (20.3) 37.8 (25.7) 32.9 (23.0) 34.5 (20.9) 36.2 (22.6) 1
Proportion with pain intensity of 40 mm or more in VAS: % 47.2 45.5 35.7 31.3 39.9 1
Proportion with daily pain: % 12.8 8.2 17.6 8.9 12.0 27
Duration of symptoms of LBP: %
 (a) < 3 months 64.1 69.1 72.7 51.9 64.5 2
 (b) 3–6 months 20.8 12.7 7.3 18.5 14.7
 (c) ≥7 months 15.1 18.2 20.0 29.6 20.7
Multisite (≥3) musculoskeletal pain with intensity ≥4 on NRS (0–10): % 42.3 29.1 25.5 26.4 30.7 4
Bodily pain interfering with work (SF 36) (score 0–100): mean (sd) 59.3 (17.3) 63.6 (19.8) 65.1 (21.1) 63.6 (17.5) 63.0 (19.0) 8
FABs related to work (score 0–48):a mean (sd) 11.2 (6.9) 11.6 (9.9) 11.0 (7.4) 9.9 (6.9) 10.9 (7.9) 9
FABs related to physical activity (score 0–30): mean (sd) 13.6 (6.6) 14.3 (6.5) 13.8 (6.0) 11.6 (6.0) 13.3 (6.3) 1
Quality of life (SF 36), SF-6D index (0.00–1.00): mean (sd) 0.71 (0.10) 0.74 (0.09) 0.75 (0.11) 0.73 (0.10) 0.74 (0.10) 9
Sickness absence days, previous 6 months: mean (range) 0.8 (0–11) 1.6 (0–40) 1.7 (0–19) 3.4 (0–70) 1.9 (0–70) 16
 % with no sickness absence days 79.2 80.0 70.2 81.4 77.6 16
Total healthcare costb (euros) in previous 6 months: mean (sd) 91 (237) 80 (162) 89 (173) 139 (354) 77 (242) 16
Total costsc (euros) in previous 6 months:mean (sd) 225 (513) 333 (1069) 351 (787) 691 (2582) 400 (1470) 16
  1. Abbreviations: VAS visual analog scale, NRS numeric rating scale, FABs Fear Avoidance Beliefs; aquestions 10, 15, and 16 excluded as non-relevant in the present study population; bvisits to a doctor, a nurse, public health nurse, physiotherapist, in-patient days, medication; ctotal healthcare costs and costs of sickness absences