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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants by study groups

From: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise and back care counseling in female healthcare workers with recurrent non-specific low back pain: a blinded four-arm randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Combined (n = 53) Exercise (n = 57) Counseling (n = 55) Control (n = 54) Total (n = 219) Missing (n)
Age (years): mean (sd) 45.1 (6.2) 47.2 (7.4) 46.4 (6.4) 46.7 (7.2) 46.4 (6.8) 0
Years working at current job: mean (sd) 12.1 (9.2) 12.2 (9.3) 9.1 (7.0) 12.4 (9.4) 11.4 (8.8) 2
Civil status: % single 45.3 33.3 32.7 29.6 35.2 0
Education: % secondary school or less 32.1 35.1 49.1 42.6 39.7 0
Shift work: % yes 71.7 64.9 75.9 66.7 69.7 1
Profession:
 % nurses’ aids 37.7 40.4 41.8 42.6 40.6 0
 % nurses 56.6 45.6 47.3 37.0 46.6 0
 % other 5.7 14.0 10.9 20.4 12.8 0
Work stress, effort-reward imbalance (range 0.2–5): mean (sd) 1.6 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5) 1.7 (0.4) 1.6 (0.5) 1.6 (0.5) 2
Support from superior (range 0–4): mean (sd) 3.3 (0.8) 3.4 (0.7) 3.3 (0.9) 3.6 (0.8) 3.4 (0.8) 1
Work ability index, short form (score 3–27): mean (sd) 21.9 (2.8) 22.0 (2.8) 22.2 (2.8) 22.3 (2.3) 22.1 (2.6) 0
Current smoker: % yes 32.1 19.3 32.7 29.6 28.3 0
Body mass index: mean (sd) 27.1 (5.3) 25.3 (3.9) 26.9 (4.2) 26.4 (4.0) 26.4 (4.4) 3
aMeets physical activity recommendation for health: (%) 29.4% 26.4% 20.0% 28.8% 26.2% 13
Muscular fitness: Modified push-ups, reps: mean (sd) 8.9 (3.8) 8.8 (2.9) 9.2 (3.0) 9.2 (2.6) 9.0 (3.1) 6
  1. a objective assessment with accelerometer [45] for 7 days (accepted for analysis if worn minimum 4 days and 10 h/day): aerobic physical activity at least three times per week amounting to at least 150 min of moderate activity or 75 min of vigorous activity (or combination of both), accumulated bouts of at least 10 consecutive minutes