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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the ELSA project participants’ in relation to 10-year all-cause mortality status (n = 10,906)

From: Social determinants, health status and 10-year mortality among 10,906 older adults from the English longitudinal study of aging: the ATHLOS project

  10-year all-cause mortality  
Alive Dead p
Age at baseline Years, mean ±SDa 61 ± 10 75 ± 10 < 0.001
Gender Women, n (%) 4647 (81%) 1094 (19%) < 0.001
Men, n (%) 3635 (75%) 1191 (25%)  
Education qualification Low, n (%) 3726 (45%) 1595 (70%) < 0.001
Moderate, n (%) 2303 (28%) 323 (14%)  
High, n (%) 2249 (27%) 363 (16%)  
Household wealth Low, n (%) 2658 (35%) 1213 (54%) < 0.001
Moderate, n (%) 1543 (21%) 403 (18%)  
High, n (%) 3341 (44%) 630 (28%)  
Smoking habits Never smoker, n (%) 3144 (38%) 616 (27%) < 0.001
Former smoker, n (%) 3661 (44%) 1213 (53%)  
Current smoker, n (%) 1477 (18%) 455 (20%)  
Physical activity Inactive, n (%) 412 (5%) 476 (21%) < 0.001
Moderate, n (%) 793 (10%) 332 (14%)  
Vigorous, n (%) 7077 (85%) 1476 (65%)  
Alcohol consumption Never, n (%) 780 (9%) 447 (20%) < 0.001
Twice a week or less, n (%) 5110 (62%) 1234 (54%)  
More than twice a week, n (%) 2389 (29%) 603 (26%)  
Health metric scoreb (0–100) Wave 1 (2002), mean ± SD 70 ± 11 60 ± 16 < 0.001
Wave 2 (2004), mean ± SD 70 ± 11 60 ± 16 < 0.001
Wave 3 (2006), mean ± SD 68 ± 12 55 ± 17 < 0.001
Wave 4 (2008), mean ± SD 65 ± 12 51 ± 16 < 0.001
Wave 5 (2010), mean ± SD 68 ± 13 45 ± 19 < 0.001
Wave 6 (2012), mean ± SD 65 ± 14 40 ± 38 0.014
  1. aSD standard deviation, bHigher values in the health metric score that evaluates functionality are indicative of better health status