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Table 5 Prevalence estimates and odds ratios for associations between discrimination experiences with health service use

From: Barrier or stressor? The role of discrimination experiences in health service use

  Health service use (last 12 months)
Health service use for mental health (n=181) Secondary physical health service use (n=530)
n (%) OR(95% CI)a OR(95% CI)b ORb (95% CI)c n (%) OR(95% CI)a OR(95% CI)b OR(95% CI)c
Everyday discrimination
 Below median 52(12.5) 1.00    213(48.8) 1.00   
 Median or above 129(19.9) 1.74(1.21-2.49) 1.28(0.85-1.93) 1.23(0.81-1.88) 317(47.6) 0.95(0.74-1.24) 0.84(0.62-1.16) 0.87(0.63-1.19)
Major discrimination
 0 domains 79(14.7) 1.00 1.00 1.00 255(44.6) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1-2 domains 59(15.6) 1.07(0.74-1.55) 0.71(0.46-1.10) 0.68(0.43-1.06) 181(47.8) 1.14(0.87-1.49) 1.12(0.82-1.53) 1.14(0.83-1.56)
 3+ domains 43(29.4) 2.42(1.55-3.76) 0.84(0.47-1.50) 0.74(0.39-1.41) 92(59.9) 1.85(1.26-2.73) 1.38(0.87-2.18) 1.39(0.86-2.25)
Anticipated discrimination
 0 domains 106(13.6) 1.00 1.00 1.00 364(45.7) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1 domain 49(22.9) 1.89(1.28-2.80) 1.28(0.79-2.09) 1.36(0.83-2.22) 120(52.3) 1.30(0.95-1.79) 1.28(0.89-1.85) 1.28(0.88-1.85)
 2+ domains 26(34.4) 3.34(1.92-5.82) 1.91(1.01-3.63) 1.85(0.93-3.71) 45(57.8) 1.63(0.98-2.70) 1.38(0.78-2.43) 1.29(0.72-2.31)
Indicators of intersectional social identity
 Migrant, mixed Ethnicity, low SES    1.38(0.68-2.81) 1.26(0.60-2.63)    0.54(0.32-0.93) 0.51(0.30-0.89)
 White British, low SES    0.83(0.38-1.80) 0.81(0.37-1.77)    0.98(0.58-1.66) 1.03(0.60-1.75)
 Non migrant, mixed ethnicity, student    1.72(0.87-3.40) 1.85(0.93-3.68)    1.45(0.86-2.46) 1.47(0.86-2.51)
 Non migrant, mixed ethnicity, skilled    1.22(0.63-2.36) 1.21(0.63-2.34)    1.08(0.69-1.69) 1.06(0.68-1.67)
 Mixed migration status, mixed ethnicity, economically inactive    2.28(1.11-4.69) 2.32(1.11-4.84)    1.15(0.65-2.03) 1.18(0.67-2.09)
 Migrant, mixed ethnicity, high SES    1.56(0.84-2.90) 1.57(0.84-2.95)    0.69(0.45-1.03) 0.71(0.46-1.07)
 White British, high SES (reference group)    1.00 1.00    1.00 1.00
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aUnadjusted models
  3. bAdjusted for intersectional social status, age (continuous variable), gender, mental/physical disorder, long standing illness and discrimination experiences
  4. cAs model 2 with additional adjustments for life events