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Table 4 Prevalence estimates and odds ratios for associations between single indicators of social status with health service use

From: Barrier or stressor? The role of discrimination experiences in health service use

  Health service use (last 12 months)
Any mental health service use (n=181) Secondary physical health service use (n=530)
n (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR1 (95% CI) n (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa (95% CI)
Ethnicity
 White British 75(14.1) 1.00 1.00 291(52.1) 1.00 1.00
 Black Caribbean 15(15.4) 1.11(0.60-2.03) 1.08(0.53-2.21) 43(49.1) 0.89(0.55-1.44) 0.91(0.52-1.58)
 Black African 20(14.2) 1.01(0.58-1.77) 0.85(0.43-1.67) 58(41.3) 0.65(0.44-0.96) 0.70(0.45-1.06)
 White Other 47(33.9) 3.13(2.00-4.91) 2.86(1.74-4.68) 71(45.9) 0.78(0.53-1.14) 0.61(0.40-0.92)
 Non White Other 17(17.0) 1.25(0.71-2.19) 1.04(0.55-1.95) 42(40.6) 0.63(0.40-0.99) 0.62(0.38-1.00)
 Mixed 7(12.9) 0.91(0.39-2.11) 0.83(0.35-1.93) 25(44.5) 0.74(0.41-1.31) 0.83(0.45-1.55)
Migration status
 Born in the UK 106(15.8) 1.00 1.00 355(50.4) 1.00 1.00
 Migrant (0-10) 21(16.4) 1.04(0.61-1.79) 1.21(0.67-2.17) 48(36.2) 0.56(0.38-0.83) 0.68(0.44-1.03)
 Migrant (11-20) 25(22.6) 1.55(0.92-2.62) 1.52(0.84-2.75) 48(41.8) 0.71(0.47-1.07) 0.72(0.46-1.13)
 Migrant (21+) 29(20.7) 1.39(0.86-2.25) 1.21(0.71-2.05) 76(52.7) 1.10(0.76-1.57) 0.60(0.40-0.92)
Educational attainment
 No qualifications/GCSE 45(17.8) 1.20(0.79-1.83) 0.60(0.35-1.04) 143(52.3) 1.41(1.04-1.91) 0.77(0.54-1.11)
 A Level 54(20.0) 1.38(0.93-2.05) 0.89(0.57-1.39) 143(52.1) 1.39(1.02-1.90) 1.28(0.91-1.80)
 Degree or above 82(15.3) 1.00 1.00 244(43.9) 1.00 1.00
Social occupational class
 Class I/II 48(11.7) 1.00 1.00 165(40.0) 1.00 1.00
 Class III 19(12.2) 1.04(0.57-1.89) 0.88(0.47-1.67) 85(51.9) 1.62(1.09-2.41) 1.51(0.98-2.32)
 Class IV/V 16(16.6) 1.50(0.80-2.80) 1.15(0.56-2.37) 40(41.2) 1.05(0.66-1.66) 0.91(0.56-1.47)
 No SOC assigned 97(23.7) 2.34(1.57-4.47) 1.26(0.80-1.97) 240(55.5) 1.87(1.40-2.51) 1.26(0.90-1.76)
Employment status
 Full/part-time employed 83(12.5) 1.00 1.00 290(43.1) 1.00 1.00
 Student 19(20.3) 1.78(0.99-3.21) 1.33(0.66-2.70) 40(46.3) 1.14(0.73-1.76) 1.44(0.84-2.47)
 Unemployed 31(30.6) 3.08(1.88-5.04) 1.96(1.11-3.47) 46(45.9) 1.12(0.72-1.73) 0.87(0.55-1.43)
 Temporary sick/disabled 22(53.0) 7.86(4.02-15.36) 1.74(0.74-4.10) 30(73.0) 3.58(1.74-7.35) 1.13(0.51-2.50)
 Retired 16(12.1) 0.96(0.54-1.72) 0.53(0.25-1.12) 102(73.1) 3.59(2.35-5.50) 1.45(0.82-2.54)
 Looking after children 9(18.0) 1.53(0.72-3.25) 1.05(0.46-2.43) 22(42.1) 0.96(0.54-1.71) 0.80(0.42-1.50)
Household income
 £0 - £12,096 40(23.4) 1.77(1.14-2.73) 0.85(0.49-1.46) 90(48.3) 1.13(0.80-1.61) 0.59(0.39-0.89)
 £12,097-£31,494 44(17.7) 1.25(0.83-1.88) 0.90(0.56-1.45) 133(52.3) 1.33(0.96-1.84) 0.91(0.63-1.32)
 £31495+ 77(14.7) 1.00 1.00 250(45.1) 1.00 1.00
Any debt
 No 123(13.6) 1.00 1.00 452(48.0) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 58(35.1) 3.44(2.37-5.00) 1.99(1.26-3.16) 78(47.9) 0.99(0.71-1.40) 0.80(0.53-1.21)
Any benefits
 No 106(13.3) 1.00 1.00 396(47.3) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 75(29.0) 2.66(1.89-3.76) 1.39(0.91-2.11) 134(50.2) 1.12(0.85-1.48) 0.69(0.50-0.96)
Tenure
 Own outright/ mortgage 63(15.3) 1.00 1.00 208(49.5) 1.00 1.00
 Rent/private 42(19.2) 1.32(0.84-2.05) 1.16(0.72-1.88) 91(39.0) 0.65(0.46-0.91) 0.82(0.56-1.20)
 Rent/council 69(19.7) 1.35(0.92-2.00) 0.71(0.45-1.13) 195(53.5) 1.17(0.87-1.57) 0.90(0.65-1.24)
 Other 5(11.5) 0.72(0.27-1.91) 0.48(0.13-1.76) 22(48.0) 0.94(0.50-1.76) 1.38(0.69-2.73)
Moved in past 2 years
 Not moved or moved once 162(17.1) 1.00 1.00 494(50.1) 1.00 1.00
 Moved twice or more 17(21.3) 1.31(0.73-2.37) 1.63(0.85-3.10) 24(29.6) 0.42(0.26-0.69) 0.56(0.32-0.98)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for age (continuous variable), gender, mental/physical disorder and long standing illness