Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of discrimination experiences and health status by intersectional social status

From: Barrier or stressor? The role of discrimination experiences in health service use

Stressors and health symptoms Indicators of intersectional social status
Migrant, mixed ethnicity, low SES White British, low SES Non migrant, mixed ethnicity, student Non migrant, mixed ethnicity, skilled Mixed migration status, mixed ethnicity, economically inactive Migrant, mixed ethnicity, high SES White British, high SES  
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) p
Everyday discrimination
 Below median 41(36.9) 37(30.9) 28(26.2) 39(23.6) 49(48.1) 70(36.8) 153(49.6) <0.001
 Median or above 59(63.1) 70(69.1) 78(73.8) 114(76.4) 51(51.9) 111(63.2) 151(50.4)  
Reason for everyday discrimination
 Race/ethnicity 16(23.7) 1(1.4) 15(17.3) 30(26.4) 14(20.1) 51(36.3) 19(7.9) <0.001
 National origins 9(12.2) 0(0) 3(2.8) 1(0.8) 2(2.7) 12(7.4) 3(1.4)  
 Education/income 3(4.2) 10(12.6) 4(3.7) 16(13.1) 4(5.2) 7(4.5) 22(10.1)  
 Age 5(9.3) 13(16.4) 14(14.9) 10(7.8) 11(14.7) 7(5.5) 40(17.9)  
 Gender 3(5.0) 0(0) 12(11.6) 4(2.8) 8(9.8) 9(5.8) 30(11.7)  
 Other 27(45.7) 50(69.6) 44(49.7) 58(49.1) 31(47.4) 56(40.5) 119(51.1)  
Major discrimination
 0 domains 43(39.6) 51(43.4) 57(53.2) 72(45.5) 54(54.3) 83(45.9) 181(60.1) <0.001
 1-2 domains 28(29.6) 35(34.8) 31(30.4) 61(41.3) 39(39.1) 71(40.3) 97(31.8)  
 3+ domains 29(30.8) 21(21.8) 17(16.4) 20(13.2) 6(6.7) 27(13.9) 27(8.1)  
Anticipated discrimination
 0 domains 57(55.4) 77(67.7) 70(68.4) 115(74.7) 79(79.3) 122(66.3) 236(77.1) 0.008
 1 domain 30(30.6) 19(20.9) 28(24.7) 27(18.5) 17(17.7) 44(25.2) 56(18.6)  
 2+ domains 13(14.0) 11(11.4) 8(7.0) 11(6.8) 3(3.0) 15(8.5) 13(4.3)  
Mental disorder 42(44.9) 42(41.1) 28(25.5) 33(20.6) 15(14.3) 30(16.2) 41(13.2) <0.001
Physical disorder 25(28.9) 34(38.9) 19(17.6) 28(17.7) 9(9.5) 18(9.5) 24(7.6) <0.001
Long standing illness 69(67.4) 88(80.4) 39(34.9) 70(40.2) 60(59.3) 67(35.2) 95(30.3) <0.001
  1. Weighted percentages to account for survey design; frequencies are unweighted and may not add up due to missing values
  2. P-value for Pearson’s χ2 with Rao & Scott corrections for χ2 tests
  3. Reason for discrimination – Other contains appearance, weight, sexual orientation, religion, physical disability and mental illness