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Table 3 Summary of the essential elements of public health emergency preparedness

From: Public health emergency preparedness: a framework to promote resilience

Element Description
Governance and leadership Vertically and horizontally integrated structures, partnerships and accountabilities to support coordinated and interoperable system functioning
Defines roles, promotes clarity and enables flexibility across system
Planning process Dynamic process anchored in the development of relationships and clear responsibilities
Supports linkages across readiness priorities and activities
Collaborative networks Effective partnerships share skillsets and support trust in a networked system
Enables access to expertise for a range of hazards and impacts
Community engagement Inclusivity supporting proactive understanding of community priorities and values
Enables consideration of community risks, assets and values, and facilitates transparency and trust
Risk analysis Process to understand risks for the community, access and analyze information
Facilitates informed planning and decision-making
Surveillance and monitoring Robust surveillance and information processes to connect the system, key stakeholders and the community
Facilitates awareness in advance and analysis of impacts of public health actions to guide response
Practice and experience Exercises, simulations and/or practice to promote agency and create feedback
Enables co-evolution and informs potential areas for adjustment
Resources Scalable and sufficient infrastructure promote adaptive capacity and support decision-making
Ensures capability for mobilizing resources linked to plans and establishing priorities for the allocation of limited resources
Workforce capacity Well-trained and knowledgeable people constitute crucial social infrastructure for the system
Supports business continuity, inter-operability and requires reciprocity
Communication Understandable information for awareness and potential actions
Enables feedback and reach to diverse audiences when supported by sufficient capacity
Learning and evaluation Assessments key to recovery and building back better and more likely to be successful if timely and prioritized
Fosters change and improvement for better preparedness and response