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Table 5 Ordinal regression analysis with vitamin D status as the dependent variable. Vitamin D status was classified as deficient, insufficient or sufficient. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, with vitamin D sufficiency as the reference status, are shown. The category shown in parenthesis against each dichotomous variable is associated with the odds ratio of being vitamin D sufficient as compared to the alternative category

From: Vitamin D status in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

  Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval Sig.
Upper bound Lower bound
Birth place (Urban) 0.61 0.29 1.29 0.195
Awareness of Vitamin D (Yes) 1.14 0.66 2.00 0.631
Source of drinking water (Bottled) 0.86 0.66 1.12 0.265
Drinking water boiled/filtered – (Yes) 0.67 0.41 1.09 0.104
Tap water at home (Yes) 1.02 0.65 1.59 0.931
Closed toilet system (Yes) 0.59 0.37 0.93 0.022
Consumption of milk (Yes) 1.11 0.74 1.65 0.613
Educational qualification (High school and above) 0.80 0.69 0.94 0.005
Occupation (Professional) 1.01 0.91 1.13 0.802
Sun exposure per day 15–30 min 0.31 0.14 0.71 0.006
Sun exposure per day 30–60 min 0.49 0.30 0.80 0.004
Sun exposure per day 60–120 min 0.82 0.48 1.40 0.468
Sun exposure per day > 120 min 0(a)    .
SES Upper & Upper Middle Class 1.10 0.56 2.15 0.780
SES Lower Middle Class 0.71 0.44 1.15 0.166
SES Upper Lower & Lower Class 0(a)    .
Gender (Male) 2.00 1.30 3.09 0.002
Age group 18–30 years 0.76 0.36 1.58 0.462
Age group 31–45 years 1.03 0.51 2.09 0.924
Age group 46–60 years 1.35 0.65 2.82 0.423
Age group > 60 years 0(a)    .
Consumption of fatty fish (No) 0.48 0.24 0.95 0.035
  1. (a)This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant