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Table 4 Association of Vitamin D status with hygiene related factors

From: Vitamin D status in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

Variables Groups n Plasma 25OH vitamin D status P value
Deficient (< 12 ng/mL) Insufficient (12–20 ng/mL) Sufficient (> 20 ng/mL)
Source of drinking water Bore well 33 3 (9.1) 17 (51.5) 13 (39.4) 0.0001
Well 19 2 (10.5) 9 (47.4) 8 (42.1)
Public tap 285 30 (10.5) 106 (37.2) 149 (52.3)
Bottled water 87 24 (27.6) 43 (49.4) 20 (23.0)
Boiled/filtered drinking water No 323 34 (10.5) 129 (39.9) 160 (49.5) 0.0001
Yes 101 25 (24.8) 46 (45.5) 30 (29.7)
Tap water at home No 242 26 (10.7) 94 (38.8) 122 (50.4) 0.0121
Yes 182 33 (18.1) 81 (44.5) 68 (37.4)
Closed toilet system No 235 24 (10.2) 83 (92) 128 (54.5) 0.0001
Yes 189 35 (18.5) 92 (48.7) 62 (32.8)