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Table 1 Vitamin D status in relation to social and economic categories

From: Vitamin D status in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

Variables Groups n Plasma 25OH vitamin D status P value
Deficient (< 12 ng/mL) Insufficient (12–20 ng/mL) Sufficient (> 20 ng/mL)
Gender Male 179 21 (11.7) 67 (37.4) 91 (50.8) 0.0963
Female 245 38 (15.5) 108 (44.1) 99 (40.4)
Marital status Unmarried 82 16 (19.5) 32 (39) 34 (41.5) 0.2635
Married / Widow 342 4312.6) 143 (41.8) 156 (45.6)
SES Category Upper + Upper Middle 76 12 (15.8) 38 (50) 26 (34.2) 0.0066
Lower Middle 234 41 (17.5) 90 (38.5) 103 (44)
Upper Lower + Lower 114 6 (5.3) 47 (41.2) 61 (53.5)
Age group (Years) 18–30 135 26 (19.3) 61 (45.2) 48 (35.6) 0.0942
31–45 140 20 (14.3) 55 (39.3) 65 (46.4)
46–60 101 9 (8.9) 41 (40.6) 51 (50.5)
Above 60 48 4 (8.3) 18 (37.5) 26 (54.2)
Education Up to primary school 260 30 (11.5) 87 (33.5) 143 (55.0) < 0.0001
High school and above 164 29 (17.7) 88 (53.7) 47 (28.6)
Occupation Non-professional 411 53 (12.9) 172 (41.8) 186 (45.3) 0.0029
Professional 13 6 (46.2) 3 (23.1) 4 (30.8)
Birth Place Rural 393 49 (12.5) 164 (41.7) 180 (45.8) 0.0085
Urban 31 10 (32.3) 11 (35.5) 10 (32.3)
Religion Hindu 353 46 (13) 143 (40.5) 164 (46.5)  
Christian 62 11 (17.7) 28 (45.2) 23 (37.1) 0.5751
Muslim 9 2 (22.2) 4 (44.4) 3 (33.3)