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Table 1 Prevalence of Discrimination and Avoidance by Demographic and Health Characteristics, 2015*

From: Discrimination and avoidance due to disability in Australia: evidence from a National Cross Sectional Survey

  Discrimination
(%)
Avoidance
(%)
Demographic Factors
 Gender
  Male 8.3 28.2
  Female 8.9   35.1 ***
 Country of Birth
  Australia 9.7 34.0
  MESB 6.6 *** 24.9 ***
  Other 5.2 *** 27.3 ***
 Social Marital Status
  Married 5.4 26.9
  Separated 16.9 *** 37.0 ***
  Divorced 11.0 *** 39.7 ***
  Widowed 2.9 *** 21.9 ***
  Never Married 16.8 *** 44.1 ***
 Region of Residence
  Major City 8.2 32.4
  Inner Regional 9.4   31.6  
  Other 9.4   29.9 *
 Labour Force Status
  Employed 9.2 31.1
  Unemployed 28.6 *** 50.4 ***
  NILF 7.4 * 31.4  
 Income Distribution
  0–20% 11.8 36.1
  20–40% 8.9 *** 33.2 *
  40–60% 8.9 *** 32.2 **
  60–80% 7.5 *** 28.5 **
  80–100% 7.2 *** 27.3 ***
  Not stated 6.8 *** 30.0 ***
 Education
  Degree or above 9.0 35.1
  Certificate 9.7   35.0  
  School Only 7.7   29.0 ***
  Not Determined 10.1   29.2 ***
Health Factors
 Number of Long Term Conditions
  1 7.0   24.9  
  2 6.8   26.0  
  3 8.7   30.4  
  4 7.1   30.3  
  5 9.8   35.1  
  6 8.2   40.0  
  7 10.6   43.0  
  8 13.0   48.6  
  9+ 22.3   53.7  
  122.4 *** 237.8 ***
Disability Types
 No -Sensory/Speech 9.4 34.9
 Yes -Sensory/Speech 6.9 *** 25.3 ***
 No - Intellectual 7.6 30.5
 Yes - Intellectual 21.0 *** 49.1 ***
 No - Physical 7.2 24.5
 Yes - Physical 9.2 *** 35.1 ***
 No - Psychosocial 5.8 24.5
 Yes - Psychosocial 21.6 *** 65.5 ***
 No - Head Injury 8.2 30.9
 Yes - Head Injury 15.5 *** 47.0 ***
 No - Other 5.6 21.8
 Yes - Other 12.4 *** 44.8 ***
Disability Severity
 Profound Limitation 12.5 52.4
 Severe Limitation 13.0   51.9  
 Moderate Limitation 10.3   39.1 ***
 Mild Limitation 6.5 *** 21.9 ***
 Education Restrict 13.2   41.1 ***
 None 3.1 *** 13.7 ***
  1. Notes: - comparison category for Wald tests of proportions; ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05; MESB Main English Speaking Background countries