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Table 5 Analysis of the effect of BMI on hip fracture risk in diabetes patients

From: Associations of body mass index and diabetes with hip fracture risk: a nationwide cohort study

Variables Unadjusted HR p-value Adjusted HR 95% CI p-value
BMI
 18.5  BMI < 24 (ref.)
 BMI < 18.5 2.54 0.032 1.78 0.75 4.26 0.193
 24  BMI < 27 0.42 0.002 0.49 0.28 0.85 0.012
 BMI    27 0.38 0.001 0.42 0.23 0.78 0.006
Sex
 Male (ref.)
 Female 1.34 0.189 1.33 0.85 2.08 0.215
Age
 40–49 (ref.)
 50–59 1.81 0.258 1.73 0.62 4.88 0.298
 60–69 5.16 0.001 4.67 1.78 12.25 0.002
 70–79 11.32 < 0.001 10.20 3.82 27.27 < 0.001
    80 23.02 < 0.001 16.97 5.94 48.43 < 0.001
Urbanization of residence area
 1 & 2 (ref.)
 3 & 4 0.76 0.289 0.79 0.46 1.36 0.402
 5–7 0.81 0.425 0.84 0.47 1.47 0.535
Monthly salary (NTD)
 17,280 (ref.)
 17,281–22,800 0.55 0.122 0.74 0.34 1.63 0.457
 22,801–36,300 0.78 0.548 1.09 0.47 2.51 0.837
 > 36,300 0.42 0.058 0.63 0.25 1.61 0.338
CCI
 0 (ref.)
 1–3 2.17 0.001 1.51 0.92 2.47 0.106
  4 5.63 < 0.001 3.51 1.43 8.59 0.006
DCSI
 0 (ref.)
    1 2.70 < 0.001 1.68 0.94 3.03 0.082
Weekly energy expended of calories in exercise
 No exercise (ref.)
 < 500 kcal/week 0.73 0.314 0.65 0.35 1.22 0.178
  500 kcal/week 0.59 0.050 0.54 0.31 0.94 0.029
  1. BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, DCSI diabetes complication severity index;
  2. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. NTD New Taiwan Dollar, 32 NTD = 1 US dollar
  4. Urbanization of residence area (overall 7 levels; Level 1 was the most urbanized)
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