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Table 3 Cox proportional hazard model analysis of hip fracture risk in all participants

From: Associations of body mass index and diabetes with hip fracture risk: a nationwide cohort study

Variables Unadjusted HR p-value Diabetes without BMI BMI without diabetes Diabetes and BMI together
Adjusted HR 95% CI Adjusted HR 95% CI Adjusted HR 95% CI p-value
Diabetes
 No (ref.)
 Yes 2.04 < 0.001 1.54 1.18 2.00 1.64 1.30 2.15 < 0.001
BMI
 18.5  BMI < 24 (ref.)        
 BMI < 18.5 2.58 < 0.001 1.71 1.14 2.56 1.75 1.17 2.61 0.007
 24  BMI < 27 0.78 0.072 0.86 0.66 1.13 0.84 0.64 1.10 0.205
 27  BMI < 30 0.72 0.098 0.75 0.51 1.11 0.70 0.48 1.04 0.076
 BMI  30 0.60 0.111 0.61 0.32 1.16 0.55 0.29 1.05 0.072
Sex
 Male (ref.)
 Female 1.15 0.206 1.28 1.02 1.60 1.30 1.04 1.63 1.29 1.03 1.62 0.027
Age
 40–49 (ref.)
 50–59 2.66 0.000 2.47 1.45 4.19 2.63 1.55 4.46 2.50 1.47 4.25 0.001
 60–69 9.12 < 0.001 7.81 4.79 12.72 8.62 5.31 14.01 7.87 4.83 12.83 < 0.001
 70–79 27.67 < 0.001 23.19 14.41 37.33 24.86 15.47 39.94 22.68 14.08 36.52 < 0.001
 80 75.60 < 0.001 56.01 33.99 92.29 58.24 35.39 95.87 52.16 31.60 86.09 < 0.001
Urbanization of residence area
 1 & 2 (ref.)
 3 & 4 0.96 0.787 0.97 0.74 1.28 0.96 0.73 1.26 0.96 0.73 1.26 0.768
 5–7 1.28 0.073 1.21 0.91 1.60 1.17 0.88 1.56 1.18 0.89 1.57 0.251
Monthly salary (NTD)
   17,280 (ref.)
 17,281–22,800 0.36 < 0.001 0.71 0.52 0.97 0.78 0.57 1.05 0.70 0.52 0.96 0.025
 22,801–36,300 0.34 < 0.001 0.85 0.58 1.23 0.93 0.64 1.35 0.84 0.58 1.22 0.349
 > 36,300 0.27 < 0.001 0.87 0.58 1.31 0.98 0.66 1.45 0.86 0.58 1.29 0.471
CCI
 0 (ref.)
 1–3 2.55 < 0.001 1.58 1.23 2.04 1.56 1.22 2.01 1.58 1.23 2.04 0.000
   4 5.44 < 0.001 2.58 1.73 3.86 2.46 1.65 3.66 2.64 1.77 3.95 < 0.001
DCSI
 0 (ref.)
 1 2.55 < 0.001 1.34 0.93 1.93 1.43 0.99 2.07 1.35 0.93 1.95 0.112
Weekly energy expended of calories in exercise
 No exercise (ref.)
 < 500 kcal/week 0.78 0.129 0.80 0.57 1.11 0.81 0.58 1.13 0.80 0.57 1.11 0.181
 500 kcal/week 0.75 0.038 0.65 0.49 0.86 0.68 0.51 0.91 0.67 0.50 0.89 0.006
  1. BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, DCSI diabetes complication severity index, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. NTD New Taiwan Dollar; 32 NTD = 1 US dollar
  3. Urbanization of residence area (overall 7 levels; Level 1 was the most urbanized)
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