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Table 3 Perpetrators* of past-year forced sex among those who experienced sexual violence at baseline and follow-up, respectively, by intervention status

From: Sexual violence among adolescent girls and young women in Malawi: a cluster-randomized controlled implementation trial of empowerment self-defense training

  Intervention Control
  Baseline (n = 452)
n (%)
Follow-Up (n = 194)
n (%)
p-valuea Baseline (n = 423)
n (%)
Follow-Up (n = 268)
n (%)
p-valuea
All Students
 Boyfriend 203 (44.9) 90 (46.4) 0.46 188 (44.4) 117 (43.7) 0.75
 Friend 51 (11.3) 30 (15.5) 0.10 41 (9.7) 33 (12.3) 0.33
 Relative 95 (21.0) 19 (9.8) 0.01 79 (18.7) 57 (21.3) 0.47
 Neighbor 37 (8.2) 23 (11.9) 0.15 46 (10.9) 13 (4.9) 0.01
 Known Adult 24 (5.3) 10 (5.2) 0.95 29 (6.9) 16 (6.0) 0.66
 Stranger 32 (7.1) 21 (10.8) 0.10 28 (6.6) 28 (10.5) 0.19
 Other 10 (2.2) ** 0.19 12(2.8) ** 0.21
Primary School Only
 Boyfriend 103 (35.6) 45 (36.6) 0.57 103 (34.5) 74 (45.4) 0.05
 Friend 32 (11.1) 24 (19.5) 0.02 32 (10.7) 26 (16.0) 0.15
 Relative 75 (26.0) 11 (8.9) 0.001 62 (20.7) 26 (16.0) 0.08
 Neighbor 25 (8.7) 18 (14.6) 0.08 39 (13.0) 5 (3.1) < 0.001
 Known Adult 20 (6.9) 6 (4.9) 0.59 25 (8.4) 12 (7.4) 0.68
 Stranger 29 (10.0) 18 (14.6) 0.14 27 (9.0) 18 (11.0) 0.63
 Other ** ** 0.53 11 (3.7) ** 0.12
Secondary School Only
 Boyfriend 100 (61.4) 45 (63.4) 0.61 85 (68.6) 43 (41.0) 0.004
 Friend 19 (11.7) 6 (8.5) 0.54 9 (7.3) 7 (6.7) 0.90
 Relative 20 (12.3) 8 (11.3) 0.95 17 (13.7) 31 (29.5) 0.001
 Neighbor 12 (7.4) 5 (7.0) 0.99 7 (5.7) 8 (7.6) 0.42
 Known Adult 4 (2.5) 4 (5.6) 0.14 4 (3.2) 4 (3.8) 0.82
 Stranger ** 3 (4.2) 0.37 ** 10 (9.5) 0.03
 Other 5 (3.1) ** < 0.001 ** ** 0.32
  1. boldface illustrates statistical significance at p < 0.05
  2. *not mutually exclusive
  3. **cell with < 2% suppressed
  4. ageneralized linear models with binomial distribution and logit link and school-correlated variance