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Table 1 Sample characteristics and their association with prescription stimulant use (N = 1136)

From: Non-medical prescription stimulant use to improve academic performance among Australian university students: prevalence and correlates of use

   Life time Prescription stimulant use (Weighted mean/ prevalence)
Overall sample (Unweighted descriptive) No Yes p*
Characteristics M (SD) M M  
Age 21.29 (2.78) 21.26 22.14 .005
  n (%) % %  
Sex
 Female 706 (62.2) 41.3 69.4 < .001
 Male 430 (37.8) 58.7 30.6  
Residency
 Australian citizen/resident 969 (85.6) 85.5 84.1 .753
 Other 163 (14.4) 14.5 15.9  
International student
 Yes 158 (14.1) 14.0 15.9 .917
 No 964 (85.9) 86.0 84.1  
Study level
 Undergraduate 984 (87.5) 87.7 82.9 .480
 Graduate/ Post-graduate 140 (12.4) 12.3 17.1  
 Other 1 (0.1) 0.0 0.0  
Highest level of parents education
 High school or below 253 (22.4) 21.7 25.2 .588
 Post-secondary school 869 (76.8) 77.4 74.8  
 Other 10 (0.8) 0.9 0.0  
Hours of paid work during semester
 Zero hours 240 (21.1) 22.1 17.9 .865
 1–25 h 636 (56.0) 55.2 56.5  
  > 25 h 70 (6.2) 6.1 7.9  
 Hours vary weekly 73 (6.4) 6.5 5.3  
 Do not work during semester 117 (10.3) 10.1 12.4  
Years studying at university
 Less than 1 year 232 (20.6) 20.9 14.3 .207
 1–3 years 455 (40.5) 40.6 34.5  
 3–5 years 329 (29.3) 29.2 37.8  
 More than 5 years 108 (9.6) 9.3 13.4  
Current study load
 Full-time 1033 (92.0) 92.0 91.9 .943
 Part-time 81 (7.2) 7.2 7.0  
 Withdrawn/ Deferred 9 (0.8) 0.8 1.1  
Mode of study
 On-campus 1054 (94.4) 94.6 93.0 .586
 Off-campus/online student 63 (5.6) 5.4 7.0  
Living on campus
 Yes 102 (10.7) 10.6 9.8 .858
 No 849 (89.3) 89.4 90.2  
Current Grade Point Average (GPA)
 Fail 16 (1.4) 1.4 4.3 .215
 Pass (4.0–4.9) 168 (15.0) 15.2 18.7  
 Credit (5.0–5.9) 416 (37.0) 37.2 31.1  
 Distinction (6.0–6.9) 376 (33.4) 32.7 38.9  
 High Distinction (7.0) 92 (8.2) 8.4 4.0  
 Other 56 (5.0) 5.1 3.0  
Physical health problem diagnosis
 Yes 198 (17.4) 16.9 17.8 .428
 No 938 (82.6) 83.1 82.2  
Mental health problem diagnosis
 Yes 227 (20.4) 19.0 32.1 .064
 No 887 (79.6) 81.0 67.9  
Prescription for pharmaceutical stimulants
 Yes 16 (1.4) 0.8 11.8 < .001
 No 1094 (98.6) 99.2 88.2  
Previous illicit drug use
 Yes 286 (25.9) 22.9 77.5 < .001
 No 818 (74.1) 77.1 22.5  
Frequency of alcohol use
 Never/ Less than yearly 237 (21.5) 22.4 7.7 < .001
 Yearly 228 (20.6) 20.9 10.9  
 Monthly 365 (33.0) 32.7 39.0  
 Weekly or more frequent 275 (24.9) 24.0 42.4  
Peer use of prescription stimulants to improve academic performance
 Yes 369 (34.8) 32.1 81.8 < .001
 No 691 (65.2) 67.9 18.2  
  1. *Weighted analyses were performed to examine the association between life time prescription stimulant use and sample characteristics. P-values were calculated based on designed based F-statistics