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Table 4 Multiple linear regression analysis showing the association between coffee drinking and T-scores among men and women

From: Does coffee drinking have beneficial effects on bone health of Taiwanese adults? A longitudinal study

Variables Men Women
β P-value β P-value
Coffee drinking (Reference: No)
 Medium 0.003 0.9662 0.105 0.1445
 High 0.237 0.0067* 0.101 0.1492
 P-trend 0.0161* 0.0947
Age group (Reference: 30–49 years)
 50–69 −0.334 <.0001* −0.388 <.0001*
  ≥ 70 −0.482 <.0001* −0.829 <.0001*
Education (Reference: College and above)
 Senior high school −0.085 0.2740 −0.169 0.0458
 Junior high school −0.245 0.0135* −0.245 0.0116*
 Elementary and below −0.228 0.0246* − 0.248 0.0124*
BMI (Reference: Normal)
 Underweight −0.369 0.0775 − 0.258 0.1133
 Overweight 0.272 0.0011* 0.082 0.3383
 Obese 0.325 0.0049 0.111 0.3172
Smoking (Reference: Never)
 Quit −0.086 0.3410 0.340 0.3238
 Yes −0.128 0.0800 0.211 0.2604
Drinking (Reference: Never)
 Quit −0.020 0.8973 0.190 0.7787
 Yes 0.011 0.8865 −0.011 0.9495
Exercise (Reference: No)
 Yes 0.162 0.0172* 0.037 0.5339
Vegetarian diet (Reference: No)
 Yes −0.059 0.4502 0.025 0.4599
Personal disease history
 Diabetes −0.236 0.1169 −0.129 0.4031
 Hypertension 0.004 0.9657 0.049 0.6030
 Heart disease 0.118 0.4049 −0.065 0.6822
 Hyperlipidemia −0.013 0.9183 0.084 0.5012
 Stroke 0.029 0.9162 1.564 0.0177*
Supplement intake
Vitamin D (Reference: No)
 Yes 0.053 0.8028 −0.049 0.7669
Other vitamins (Reference: No)
 Yes 0.377 0.0167* −0.022 0.8250
Calcium (Reference: No)
 Yes −0.272 0.0159* −0.053 0.4692
  1. *P< 0.05. Adjusted for age, education, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, vegetarian diet, vitamin D, other vitamins, calcium, blood type, fasting blood glucose, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, GOT, GPT, SBP, DBP, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, body fat, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia and stroke