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Table 2 Basic characteristics of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

From: Does coffee drinking have beneficial effects on bone health of Taiwanese adults? A longitudinal study

Variables Premenopausal women n(%) Postmenopausal women n(%) P-value
Coffee drinking    <.0001*
 No 332 (47.03) 490 (62.74)  
 Medium 146 (20.68) 150 (19.21)  
 High 228 (32.29) 141 (18.05)  
T-score    <.0001*
 T ≥ −1 410 (58.07) 269 (34.44)  
 -2.5 < T < −1 115 (16.29) 315 (40.33)  
 T ≤ −2.5 181 (25.64) 197 (25.22)  
Age group (years)    <.0001*
 30–49 607 (85.98) 74 (9.48)  
 50–69 99 (14.02) 655 (83.87)  
  ≥ 70 0 (0.00) 52 (6.66)  
Education    <.0001*
 College and above 197 (27.90) 46 (5.89)  
 Senior high school 322 (45.61) 153 (19.59)  
 Junior high school 127 (17.99) 151 (19.33)  
 Elementary and below 60 (8.50) 431 (55.19)  
BMI (kg/m2)    <.0001*
 Underweight 35 (4.96) 16 (2.05)  
 Normal 419 (59.35) 337 (43.15)  
 Overweight 145 (20.54) 230 (29.45)  
 Obese 107 (15.16) 198 (25.35)  
Smoking    0.1044
 Never 677 (95.89) 761 (97.44)  
 Quit 11 (1.56) 4 (0.51)  
 Yes 18 (2.55) 16 (2.05)  
Drinking    0.0532
 Never 670 (94.90) 760 (97.31)  
 Quit 3 (0.42) 2 (0.26)  
 Yes 33 (4.67) 19 (2.43)  
Exercise    0.0001*
 No 278 (39.38) 233 (29.83)  
 Yes 428 (60.62) 548 (70.17)  
Vegetarian diet    0.0661
 No 641 (90.79) 686 (87.84)  
 Yes 65 (9.21) 95 (12.16)  
Personal disease history    
 Diabetes 13 (1.84) 63 (8.07) <.0001*
 Hypertension 45 (6.37) 166 (21.25) <.0001*
 Heart disease 15 (2.12) 33 (4.23) 0.0221*
 Hyperlipidemia 18 (2.55) 62 (7.94) <.0001*
 Stroke 1 (0.14) 1 (0.13) 0.9430
Supplement intake    
Vitamin D    0.9891
 No 688 (97.45) 761 (97.44)  
 Yes 18 (2.55) 20 (2.56)  
Other vitamins    0.0619
 No 626 (88.67) 667 (85.40)  
 Yes 80 (11.33) 114 (14.60)  
Calcium    <.0001*
 No 534 (75.64) 482 (61.72)  
 Yes 172 (24.36) 299 (38.28)  
  1. *P< 0.05