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Table 1 Basic characteristics of both male and female participants

From: Does coffee drinking have beneficial effects on bone health of Taiwanese adults? A longitudinal study

Variables Men
(n = 1195)
Women
(n = 1487)
P-value
Coffee drinking    0.0382*
 No 681(56.99) 822(55.28)  
 Medium 265(22.18) 296(19.91)  
 High 249(20.84) 369(24.82)  
T-score    0.0004*
T ≥ − 1 477(39.92) 679(45.66)  
 -2.5 < T < −1 429(35.90) 430(28.92)  
T ≤ −2.5 289(24.18) 378(25.42)  
Age group (years)    <.0001*
 30–49 471(39.41) 681(45.80)  
 50–69 516(43.18) 754(50.71)  
  ≥ 70 208(17.41) 52(3.50)  
Education    <.0001*
 College and above 367(30.71) 243(16.34)  
 Senior high school 403(33.72) 475(31.94)  
 Junior high school 182(15.23) 278(18.70)  
 Elementary and below 243(20.33) 491(33.02)  
BMI (kg/m2)    <.0001*
 Underweight 25(2.09) 51(3.43)  
 Normal 462(38.66) 756(50.84)  
 Overweight 423(35.40) 375(25.22)  
 Obese 285(23.85) 305(20.51)  
Smoking    <.0001*
 Never 597(49.96) 1438(96.70)  
 Quit 174(14.56) 15(1.01)  
 Yes 424(35.48) 34(2.29)  
Drinking    <.0001*
 Never 852(71.30) 1430(96.17)  
 Quit 53(4.44) 5(0.34)  
 Yes 290(24.27) 52(3.50)  
Exercise    0.6398
 No 421(35.23) 511(34.36)  
 Yes 774(64.77) 976(65.64)  
Vegetarian diet    0.0025*
 No 1107(92.64) 1327(89.24)  
 Yes 88(7.36) 160(10.76)  
Personal disease history    
 Diabetes 88(7.36) 76(5.11) 0.0155*
 Hypertension 231(19.33) 211(14.19) 0.0004*
 Heart disease 64(5.36) 48(3.23) 0.0062*
 Hyperlipidemia 84(7.03) 80(5.38) 0.0764
 Stroke 16(1.34) 2(0.13) 0.0001*
Supplement intake    
Vitamin D    0.6202
 No 1168(97.74) 1449(97.44)  
 Yes 27(2.26) 38(2.56)  
Other vitamins    <.0001*
 No 1100(92.05) 1293(86.95)  
 Yes 95(7.95) 194(13.05)  
Calcium    <.0001*
 No 1002(83.85) 1016(68.33)  
 Yes 193(16.15) 471(31.67)  
  1. *P< 0.05