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Table 2 Parameter estimates for simple model (SM), patient-based model (PBM), area-based model (ABM), and combined model (CM)

From: The usefulness of small-area-based socioeconomic characteristics in assessing the treatment outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients: a register-based mixed-effect study

  SM   PBM   ABM   CM  
    Fixed parta      
Variable Estimate (95% CI) p-value Estimate (95% CI) p-value Estimate (95% CI) p-value Estimate (95% CI) p-value
Age 4.86 (2.68–7.04) 0.00 2.98 (0.29–5.67) 0.03 4.97 (2.78–7.15) 0.00 3.06 (0.37–5.74) 0.03
Gender (2 = male) 83.00 (31.95–134.06) 0.00 101.24 (49.16–153.32) 0.00 83.18 (31.95–134.40) 0.00 100.84 (48.80–152.88) 0.00
Income (patient)    −5.24 (−8.01–(−2.46)) 0.00    −5.05 (−7.82–(−2.28)) 0.00
Education (patient)    −40.18 (−71.80–(− 8.56)) 0.00    −35.24 (−66.93–(−3.56)) 0.03
Unemployed (patient)    77.54 (−71.57–226.65) 0.08    74.54 (−74.53–223.62) 0.33
Income (small-area)      0.02 (0.00–0.04) 0.08 0.02 (0.00–0.04) 0.10
Education (small-area)      −14.33 (−20.27–(−8.39)) 0.00 −12.75 (−18.74–(−6.77)) 0.00
Unemployed (small-area)      7.25 (−12.39–26.89) 0.47 4.40 (−15.31–24.12) 0.66
    Random partb      
Municipality (M) 0.08592   0.07742   0.09612   0.09442  
Postal code area (Pa) 0.11962   0.11152   0.04832   0.04962  
Patient (P) 1.22372   1.21772   1.22052   1.21852  
Areas (M + Pa) 0.14732   0.13572   0.10762   0.10662  
Total (M + Pa + P) 1.23252   1.22522   1.22522   1.22322  
  1. aThe fixed part presents estimated regression coefficients of the linear mixed-effect models and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) and p-values. The estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals have been multiplied by 1000 to help the interpretation process
  2. bThe random part presents unexplained variance at different levels (in the form se2)