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Table 3 Univariable Analysis of Infant HIV Infection by EMTCT Service and Other Health System & Maternal/Infant indicators

From: Impact of maternal ART on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at six weeks postpartum in Rwanda

Variable Answer (#)* MTCT % 95%CI p-value
EMTCT Site Yes (1547) 1.6 1.1–2.5 0.097
No (92) 0.7 0.2–2.4
HIV Test Results written on Card Yes (1516) 1.6 1.0–2.5 0.0504
No (81) 0.5 0.1–1.9
Mother HIV testing during pregnancy (in Negative or Unknown at beginning of pregnancy) Yes (1615) 1.6 1.0–2.4 0.6220
No (24) 2.4 0.6–10.0
Mother HIV status known during pregnancy Tested HIV+ during pregnancy (1280) 1.2 0.7–2.1 0.051
Tested HIV Negative during pregnancy (162) 3.5 1.7–7.0
Not tested during pregnancy (177) 2.7 1.4–5.1
Mother CD4 Count done CD4 done (1505) 1.6 1.0–2.4 0.432
CD4 not done (92) 2.7 1.07.4
Mother referred to ART clinic Yes referred (1316) 1.1 0.6–2.0 0.034
Not referred (242) 3.2 1.9–5.6
CD4 level > 350 (275) 2.2 1.1–4.5 0.328
<=350 (1075) 1.4 0.7–2.5
Mother visited ART clinic Yes (1467) 1.6 1.1–2.5 0.637
No (107) 1.2 0.3–4.6
Maternal took ART/ARV during pregnancy Yes (1474) 1.3 0.8–2.1 0.051
No (120) 4.9 2.4–9.8
Mother timing of initiation of ART Prior to pregnancy (637) 0.4 0.2–0.9 0.012
During Pregnancy (686) 1.9 1.1–3.4
After Delivery (44) 8.6 2.5–26.2
Infant ARV Prophylaxis Initiation Nevirapine within 72 h (1149) 1.2 1.0–2.4 0.062
Nevirapine not within 72 hoursbut within 6 weeks/no (430) 2.7 1.6–4.5
Mother-Baby ART/ARV Mother & Baby Received (1422) 1.3 0.8–2.2 0.056
Not Mother-Baby ART/ARV (either mother or baby or both no treatment) (128) 4.7 2.3–9.3
Infant Cotrimoxazole Yes (639) 1.1 0.5–2.7 0.217
No (965) 2.0 1.3–3.2
Infant Feeding Counselling received Yes (1420) 1.1 0.6–2.0 0.024
No (194) 3.6 2.1–6.1
Infant Feeding exclusive breastfeeding in last 24 h Yes (1439) 1.5 0.9–2.3 0.399
No (196) 2.4 1.0–5.7
Any Breastfeeding Yes (1429) 1.5 1.0–2.4 0.535
No (210) 2.1 0.9–5.1
Disclosed status Yes (1340) 1.1 0.7–1.9 0.006
Nov (252) 4.1 2.4–6.8
Perceived Discrimination Yes (212) 2.7 1.2–6.0 0.255
No (1372) 1.5 0.9–2.3
Antenatal Care 0 visits (17) 11.3 3.5–30.9 0.130
1 or more visits (1586) 1.5 1.0–2.3
Gestational Age started antenatal care < 27 Weeks (1093) 1.0 0.5–2.0 0.049
> = 27 Weeks (546) 2.7 1.5–4.6
Syphilis Screen during pregnancy Yes (1264) 1.4 0.9–2.3 0.062
No (237) 3.0 1.8–5.2
Tuberculosis Screen during pregnancy Yes (602) 1.9 1.0–3.6 0.458
No (952) 1.4 0.8–2.4
Place of Delivery Facility (1525) 1.5 0.9–2.2 0.257
Home/Other (98) 3.5 1.3–9.1
Method of Delivery Vaginal (1343) 1.4 0.9–2.2 0.897
Caesarean Section (237) 1.5 0.6–4.0
Delivered by Doctor (310) 1.4 0.6–3.3 0.449
Midwife/Nurse (1217) 1.4 0.9–2.4
Traditional Birth Attendant/Other (80) 4.2 1.6–10.6
Low Birth Weight Yes (85) 2.2 1.0–4.9 0.467
No (1533) 1.5 1.0–2.4
Preterm Yes (41) 3.5 1.3–9.4 0.349
No (1598) 1.5 1.0–2.4
  1. *Totals may not add to 100% due to missing
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