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Table 1 – Characteristics of the study populationa

From: Cardiovascular disease risk and comparison of different strategies for blood pressure management in rural India

  Overall (n = 62,194) Male (n = 29,097) Female (n = 33,097) p-values
Age (years), mean (95% CI) 54·0 (53·7–54·3) 54·7 (54·4–55·1) 53·3 (53·0–53·6) < 0·001
Female, % (95% CI) 53·2 (52·5–53·9)    
Currently smoking, % (95% CI) 21·9 (20·6–23·2) 41·0 (38·5–43·4) 5·1 (4·4–5·8) < 0·001
Currently chewing tobacco, % (95% CI) 1·5 (1·2–1·8) 3·1 (2·4–3·8) 0·1 (0·0–0·1) < 0·001
Established CVD, % (95% CI) 4·0 (3·7–4·3) 5·0 (4·6–5·3) 3·2 (2·8–3·6) < 0·001
Myocardial infarction/angina, % (95% CI) 2·3 (2·0–2·6) 2·7 (2·4–3·0) 2·0 (1·7–2·3) < 0·001
Stroke, % (95% CI) 1·8 (1·6–1·9) 2·3 (2·1–2·6) 1·2 (1·0–1·5) < 0·001
Peripheral vascular diseases, % (95% CI) 0·1 (0·1–0·2) 0·2 (0·1–0·3) 0·1 (0·0–0·1) < 0·001
Self-reported diabetes, % (95% CI) 11·6 (10·6–12·6) 11·3 (10·2–12·3) 11·8 (10·8–12·9) 0·143
All diabetes, % (95% CI) 18·0 (16·8–19·2) 17·8 (16·6–18·9) 18·3 (16·9–19·6) 0·250
SBP (mmHg), mean (95% CI) 126·3 (125·2–127·3) 124·2 (123·4–125·1) 128·1 (126·8–129·4) < 0·001
DBP (mmHg), mean (95% CI) 79·8 (79·2–80·4) 79·4 (78·8–79·9) 80·3 (79·6–80·9) < 0·001
BP lowering treatment, % (95% CI) 19·6 (18·4–20·9) 16·1 (15·1–17·2) 22·7 (21·2–24·2) < 0·001
10-year adjusted cardiovascular risk, % (95% CI)b
I <  10% risk 63·9 (62·5–65·2) 63·3 (61·8–64·8) 64·4 (62·6–66·1) 0·168
II 10–20% risk 13·0 (12·5–13·5) 13·9 (13·0–14·7) 12·2 (11·7–12·6) < 0·001
III 20–30% risk 5·3 (4·9–5·6) 5·9 (5·4–6·4) 4·8 (4·5–5·0) < 0·001
IV 30–40% risk 1·2 (1·1–1·3) 1·8 (1·6–2·1) 0·6 (0·5–0·7) < 0·001
V > 40% risk 0·8 (0·8–0·9) 0·6 (0·5–0·7) 1·0 (0·9–1·2) < 0·001
VI Established CVD 4·0 (3·7–4·4) 5·0 (4·6–5·3) 3·2 (2·8–3·6) < 0·001
VII BP ≥160/100 mmHg 11·8 (11·1–12·5) 9·5 (8·9–10·1) 13·8 (12·9–14·8) < 0·001
10-year adjusted cardiovascular risk groups, % (95% CI)b
 Low risk (I + II) 76·8 (75·7–78·0) 77·2 (76·1–78·4) 76·5 (75·1–78·0) 0·251
 Intermediate risk (III) 5·3 (4·9–5·6) 5·9 (5·4–6·4) 4·8 (4·5–5·1) < 0·001
 High risk (IV + V + VI + VII) 17·9 (16·9–18·8) 16·9 (16·1–17·7) 18·7 (17·4–20·0) 0.001
  1. aWeighted estimates bAfter estimation of pre-treatment BP for those on BP lowering treatment
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BP blood pressure