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Table 3 Impact of maternal perceived stress levels on longitudinal BMI z-score development in preschool children (birth-age 5)

From: Early maternal perceived stress and children’s BMI: longitudinal impact and influencing factors

   β estimatea 95% CI p-value
A - Maternal perceived stress at
 Pregnancy (n = 498) 0.06 -0.07 – 0.20 0.372
 Year 1 (n = 491) 0.23 0.080.37 0.002
 Year 2 (n = 473) 0.09 -1.47 – 1.64 0.283
 Pregnancy to year 2 (n = 473) 0.06 -0.01 – 0.12 0.078
B - Sex-stratified effect of maternal perceived stress at year 1
 Girls only (n = 241) 0.30 0.110.49 0.002
 Boys only (n = 250) 0.10 -0.11 – 0.31 0.333
  1. (A) Effects of maternal perceived stress during pregnancy, year 1 and year 2 (B) Sex disparity in susceptibility to maternal perceived stress at year 1. Significant associations are presented in bold (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. aEstimates derived from general estimation equations GEE for BMI z-scores (birth to age 5) as dependent variable, adjusted for gestational week at delivery, mode of delivery, pregnancy cotinine levels and breastfeeding duration (not for pregnancy stress levels)