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Table 1 General study characteristics of the LINA cohort

From: Early maternal perceived stress and children’s BMI: longitudinal impact and influencing factors

  entire LINA cohort n (%), n = 629 a analyzed sub-cohort n (%), n = 498 a χ2-test
Gender    0.810
 Male 330 (52.5) 253 (50.8)  
 Female 299 (47.5) 245 (49.2)  
Week of gestation at birth    0.951
 <37 weeks 25 (4.0) 16 (3.2)  
 37-40 weeks 389 (61.8) 308 (61.8)  
 > 40 weeks 214 (34.0) 174 (34.9)  
Mode of delivery    0.979
 Spontaneous 471 (74.9) 387 (77.7)  
 C-section 132 (21.0) 104 (20.9)  
 Others 7 (1.1) 7 (1.4)  
Birth weight    0.996
 < 3000g 123 (19.6) 92 (18.5)  
 ≥ 3000g – 3500g 242 (38.5) 195 (39.2)  
 ≥ 3500g – 4000g 192 (30.5) 151 (30.3)  
 ≥ 4000g 71 (11.3) 60 (12.0)  
Household members    0.887
 2 33 (5.2) 26 (5.2)  
 3 365 (56.6) 300 (60.2)  
 ≥4 203 (32.3) 196 (39.4)  
Breastfeeding    0.515
 1.-3. month 112 (17.8) 87 (17.5)  
 1.-6. month 268 (42.6) 166 (33.3)  
 1.-12. month 254 (40.4) 226 (45.4)  
Parental education b    0.697
 Low 16 (2.5) 6 (1.2)  
 Medium 144 (22.9) 101 (20.3)  
 High 468 (74.4) 391 (78.5)  
Household income / month    0.648
 < 2000€ 240 (38.2) 172 (34.5)  
 2000€ - 4000€ 308 (49.0) 171 (34.3)  
 > 4000€ 42 (6.7) 35 (7.0)  
Separation/divorce c    0.973
 Yes 25 (4.0) 23 (4.6)  
 No 169 (26.9) 158 (31.7)  
Prenatal ETS exposure d    0.243e
 Median [μg/g creatinine] 2.0 1.85  
 < 25% , > 75% 0.8,5.6 0.75,4.95  
  1. an may be different from total n due to missing data
  2. bLow = 8 yrs of schooling (‘Hauptschulabschluss`); medium = 10 yrs of schooling (`Mittlere Reife`); high = 12 yrs of schooling or more (`(Fach-)hochschulreife’)
  3. cParental separation/divorce in the last 3 years from children’s age 2 years
  4. dETS environmental tobacco smoke (urinary cotinine level at pregnancy)
  5. ep-value derived from Student’s T test between group means